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Table 3 Patient characteristics and outcome of patients grouped by the definition used to classify AKI by serum creatinine criteria

From: Incidence, timing and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients varies with the definition used and the addition of urine output criteria

Characteristic of patients Group 1 No AKI
N = 1078
Group 2 RIFLE, AKIN & KDIGO AKI
N = 212
Group 3 AKIN & KDIGO AKI
N = 70
Group 4 AKIN AKI
N = 14
p value
Age (years; mean (sd)) 63 (19) 67 (20) 68 (15) 54 (28) <0.05 (*)
Male sex (N (%)) 681 (63.1) 122 (57.5) 52 (74.3) 8 (57.1) 0.078
Body Mass Index (kg/m2; mean (sd)) 25.8 (5.6) 26.2 (5.6) 26 (6.2) 25.6 (4.7) 0.013 (****)
APACHE IV score (mean (sd)) 43 (25) 76 (30) 56 (26.5) 51.5 (36.5) 0.001 (***)
Admission type
 • Medical (N (%)) 308 (28.6) 114 (53.8) 26 (37.1) 12 (85.7) 0.001
 • Surgical     
  ◦ Scheduled (N (%)) 640 (59.4) 53 (25) 32 (45.7) 2 (14.3)
  ◦ Emergency (N (%)) 129 (12) 45 (21.2) 12 (17.1) 0 (0)
Co morbidity
 • diabetes mellitus (N (%)) 149 (13.8) 62 (29.2) 9 (12.9) 1 (7.1) 0.001
 • chronic kidney disease (N (%)) 5 (0.5) 48 (22.6) 4 (5.7) 0 (0) 0.001
 • chronic dialysis (N (%)) 0 (0) 23 (10.8) 1 (1.4) 0 (0) 0.001
ICU Length of stay (days; median [IQR]) 2 (2–3) 4 (2–8) 2 (2–4) 13 (4–13) 0.001 (****)
ICU mortality (N (%)) 37 (3.4) 30 (14.1) 7 (10) 3 (21.4) 0.001
Hospital mortality (N (%)) 64 (5.9) 51 (24.1) 11 (15.7) 3 (21.4) 0.001
  1. Group 1: patients without AKI
  2. Group 2: patients with AKI according to RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria
  3. Group 3: patients with AKI according to AKIN and KDIGO
  4. Group 4: patients with AKI according to AKIN
  5. IQR interquartile range
  6. N number of patients
  7. APACHE IV Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV
  8. ICU intensive care unit
  9. LoS length of stay
  10. (*) group 1 vs group 2 and 3, group 2 vs group 1 and 4, group 3 vs group 1 and 4
  11. (***) group 2 vs group 1, 3 en 4, group 3 vs group 1 & 2
  12. (****) group 1 vs group 2 and 4, group 3 vs group 1 and 2, group 4 vs group 1, 2 and 3