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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and research indexes between the different studied groups

From: The association between interleukin-19 concentration and diabetic nephropathy

Characteristics Controls T2DM   T2DM with   P-value
Normoalbuminuria Microalbuminuria Macroalbuminuria
n 50 200 102 72 26
Age (years)
Sex (males/females)
58 ± 11
26/24
60 ± 10.3
109/91
61 ± 10
58/44
59 ± 9.8
39/33
60 ± 11
12/14
0.25
Duration of diabetes (years)
BMI (kg/m2)

25 ± 5
9 (4–13)
28 ± 2
8 (5–11)
23 ± 1.5
10 (6–13)
28 ± 1.6
10 (7–15)
32 ± 3.0
0.210
0.001
SBP (mm Hg) 127 ± 15 130 ± 16 132 ± 15 135 ± 16 138 ± 17 0.025
DBP (mm Hg) 75 ± 7 83 ± 6 81 ± 4 82 ± 5 84 ± 5 0.037
TC (mmol/L) 4.6 ± 1.0 5.7 ± 1.6 5.6 ± 1.8 5.7 ± 1.4 5.9 ± 1.5 0.825
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.4 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 1.5 2.1 ± 1.3 2.4 ± 1.5 2.6 ± 1.6 0.874
HDL-C (mmol/L)
LDL-C (mmol/L)
1.5 ± 0.5
3.1 ± 0.9
1.3 ± 0.5
2.5 ± 0.7
1.2 ± 0.4
2.6 ± 0.8
1.3 ± 0.4
2.3 ± 0.6
1.1 ± 0.4
2.6 ± 1.0
<0.001
0.058
IL-19 (pg/ml)
Cystatin C (mg/L)
13.2. ± 9.5
0.6 ± 0.2
40.5 ± 12.0
1.12 ± 0.7
35.8 ± 12.3
1.32 ± 0.5
49.4 ± 13.6
2.05 ± 1. 0
61.3 ± 18.2
3.87 ± 1.1
<0.001
0.03
UAE (mg/24 h)
Hs-CRP (mg/L)
7 ± 2
0.7 ± 0.3
140 ± 120
3.6 ± 1.5
18 ± 14
3.0 ± 0.9
180 ± 130
4.3 ± 1.2
510 ± 225
5.6 ± 1.0
0.001
<0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.4 ± 0.5 8.5 ± 1.8 8.3 ± 1.5 8.7 ± 2.0 8.6 ± 1.8 <0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, IL-19, interleukin-19, UAE urinary albumin excretion, HS-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein