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Table 1 Performance of biomarker correlation with fibrosis on renal biopsy

From: Biomarkers for the detection of renal fibrosis and prediction of renal outcomes: a systematic review

Reference Biomarker Patient Population N (%)* Grading of fibrosis on biopsy Time from biomarker evaluation to biopsy Correlation Coefficient AUC/Specificity/Sensitivity
Correlation Coefficient r >0.40 or AUC >0.65
El Ghoul et al [14] Urine PIIINP Biopsies for clinical reasons 118 Banff 2003/ Semi-quantitatively Within 1 month r = 0.32 p < 0.001 NR
Teppo et al [15] Urine PIIINP Transplant recipients 79 Banff 1997/ Semi-quantitatively Same timea r = 0.41 p < 0.001 To predict no fibrosis urine PIIINP <100 ng/mmol
NR/84%/83%
Soylemezoglu et al [16] Urine and blood PIIINP Biopsies for clinical reasons 40 Morphometric analysis Same time Urine PIIINP
r = 0.51 p < 0.01
Blood PIIINP
r = 0.49 p < 0.01
NR
Honkanen et al [20] Urine TGF- β Idiopathic membranous glomeruloneph-ritis 27 Semi-quantitatively Same time and 1 year prior to biopsyb r = 0.29 p = 0.2
(same time)
r = 0.86 p = 0.01
(1 year prior)
NR
Susianti et al [21] Urine TGF- β Lupus nephritis 58(76) Semi-quantitatively Same time r = 0.60 p < 0.001 0.90/85%/84%
Murakami et al [22] Urine TGF-β Glomerulopat-hy 42 Semi-quantitatively Same time NR NR
Zhang et al [24] Urine MCP-1
Urine Hepcidin
Urine LFABP
Lupus nephritis 61 Semi-quantitatively Within 24 h NR
NR
NR
0.66/59%/65%
0.48/93%/35%
0.60/85%/41%
Chang et al [25] Blood PAI-1 Transplant recipients 50 CADI score Same time r = 0.41 p = 0.003 NR
Sanders et al [26] Urine MMP-2
Urine TIMP-1
ANCA vasculitis 29 Semi-quantitatively Same time Urine MMP-2
r = 0.41 p = 0.02
Urine TIMP-1
r = 0.35 p = 0.05
NR
Correlation Coefficient r ≤0.40 and AUC ≤0.65
Grenzi et al [18] Blood CD30 Transplant
Recipients
511(25) Banff 2007 10 days to 9.8 years NR NR
Amer et al [10] Urine RBP Transplant recipients 221(36) Banff 1997 Same time r = 0.20 p = 0.003 NR
Barbosa de Deus et al [11] Urine RBP Glomerulopa-thy 100 Image digitalization Same time NR NR
Pallet et al [12] Urine RBP Biopsies for clinical reasons 162 Numerical quantification software Same time r = 0.33 p = 0.001 Fibrosis score > 25%
NR/95%/20%
Zhu et al [13] Blood VCAM-1 IgA nephropathy 327(23) Oxford classification Same time NR NR
Metalidis et al [17] Urine CTGF Transplant recipients 3151
225
Banff 1997 Same time and 21 months apart NR Same time
AUC = 0.63
21 months:
AUC = 0.65
Liu et al [19] Urine MBL IgA nephropathy 162 Lee’s classification/ Oxford classification Same time NR NR
Lu et al [23] Urine SGK-1 IgA nephropathy 76 Oxford classification Same time r = 0.24 p = 0.04 (adjusted for M)c
r = 0.37 p = 0.001
(adjusted for E)c
r = 0.34 p = 0.003
(adjusted for S)c
NR
  1. ANCA anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, AUC area under the curve, CADI chronic allograft damage index, CTGF connective tissue growth factor, LFABP liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, MBL mannose-binding lectin, MCP-1 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MMP-2 matrix metalloproteinase-2, NR not reported, PAI-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, PIIINP amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen, RBP retinol- binding protein, SGK-1 serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase, TIMP-1 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, TGF- β transforming growth factor-beta, VCAM vascular cell adhesion molecule 1
  2. * When provided by study, ‘N’ represents the total number of participants receiving a biopsy and (%) is those with fibrosis on biopsy
  3. 1315 had CTGF level drawn same time as biopsy, but only 225 had CTGF drawn 21-month prior to biopsy
  4. aSome biopsies were done a few days apart from biomarker measurement
  5. b7 patients had biomarker measured 1 year prior to biopsy
  6. c M mesangial hypercellularity, S segmental glomerulosclerosis, E endocapillary hypercellularity