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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Accuracy of cystatin C in prediction of acute kidney injury in children; serum or urine levels: which one works better? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Country Setting Mean age (year) Boys (%) Sample size AKI definition Location Storage degreea Timing of CysC (hours) Timing of SCr (hours)
Ali et al. 2013 [42] USA Cardiac surgery 4 47.4 19 Urine output of <0.5 Serum NR 12 96
Al-Tonbary et al. 2004 [43] Egypt Cancer 5.3 63.8 47 Decrease in eCCl by at least 20% from baseline Serum -20 0 720
Askenazi et al. 2011 [9] England Low Birth Weight Infants 1 46.7 30 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL Urine -20 0 48
Askenazi et al. 2012 [44] England ICU admitted 1 51.5 33 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL Urine -20 0 48
Ataei et al. 2014 [45] Iran ICU admitted 1 56.1 107 Decrease in eCCl by at least 25% Serum -80 0 48
Benzer et al. 2015 [46] Turkey Contrast induced nephropathy 8.8 39.7 141 Decrease in eCCl by at least 25% Serum -20 0 24
Di Nardo et al. 2013 [47] Italy Sepsis 2.5 36.4 11 Decrease in eCCl by at least 25% Serum and urine -80 0 to 24 48
Elmas et al. 2013 [48] Turkey Respiratory distress syndrome 1 45.5 28 Cr > 1.5 mg/dL Serum -70 0 72
Hamed et al. 2013 [49] Egypt ICU admitted 7 53.1 32 GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2 Serum -20 0 24
Hassinger et al. 2012 [50] USA Cardiac surgery 7.6 55 100 GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2 Serum -70 0 to 24 96
Herbert et al. 2015 [51] USA Cardiac surgery 1 58.8 17 NGAL > 150 ng/mL Serum -20 24 72
Herrero-Morín et al. 2007 [52] Spain ICU admitted 2.9 60 25 GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2 Serum NR 24 24
Koyner et al. 2013 [53] USA Cardiac surgery 3.8 55 299 100% rise of Cr Urine -80 0 to 12 24
Krawczeski et al. 2010 [54] USA Cardiac surgery 3.5 53.5 374 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL Serum NR 0 to 24 48
Lagos-Arevalo et al. 2014 [55] Canada ICU admitted 4.7 60 160 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL Urine -80 0 48
Li et al. 2012 [56] China ICU admitted 0 54.8 62 Cr > 1.5 mg/dL Urine -80 Within 240 240
Mamikonian et al. 2014 [57] USA Cardiac surgery 1.3 43 40 Doubling of SCr from baseline Serum -80 2 to 24 24 to 72
Maruniak-Chudek et al. 2012 [58] Poland ICU admitted 0 62.5 32 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL Serum -70 0 to 24 24 to 48
McCaffrey et al. 2015 [59] UK ICU admitted 3 53 49 Decrease in eCCl by at least 25% Serum -80 0 12 to 24
Peco-Antić et al. 2013 [60] Serbia Cardiac surgery 1.6 58 112 Decrease in eCCl by at least 25% Serum -80 0 to 24 48
Polat et al. 2013 [61] Turkey ICU admitted 8.75 44 52 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL Serum -80 0 48
Sarafidis et al. 2012 [62] Greece Asphyxia 0 76.9 13 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL Serum and urine -80 24 24 to 72
Volpon et al. 2013 [63] Brazil ICU admitted 3.8 53.3 122 GFR < 75 mL/min/1.73 m2 Serum -80 0 to 24 72
Zhang et al. 2013 [64] China Cardiac surgery 1 69.8 43 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL Serum -80 0 to 24 72
  1. aCelsius, AKI acute kidney injury, Cr creatinine, GFR glomerular filtration rate, eCCl estimated creatinine clearance, ICU intensive care unit, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, SCr serum creatinine