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Table 3 Primary subgroup analyses of serum and urine level of cystatin C in patients with acute kidney injury

From: Accuracy of cystatin C in prediction of acute kidney injury in children; serum or urine levels: which one works better? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics P for publication bias Model P for heterogeneity (I2) SMD (95% CI) P for effect size
a) Serum level
Timing of cystain C assessment
 Overall 0.44 REM <0.001 (89.9%) 0.96 (0.68-1.24) <0.001
 Baseline 0.37 REM <0.001 (91.1%) 0.98 (0.39-1.57) <0.001
 1-6 h 0.90 REM <0.001 (91.2%) 0.72 (0.09-1.36) <0.001
 7-12 h >0.99 REM <0.001 (01.1%) 1.29 (0.54-2.04) <0.001
 13-24 h 0.66 REM <0.001 (83.4%) 0.99 (0.55-1.43) <0.001
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.62
Timing of AKI definition
 Within 24 h 0.07 REM <0.001 (94.6%) 0.88 (-0.40-2.17) 0.18
 Within 48 h 0.60 REM <0.001 (93.2%) 1.05 (0.62-1.15) <0.001
 Within 72 h 0.57 REM <0.001 (76.0%) 0.74 (0.28-1.10) 0.002
 More than 72 h 0.17 REM <0.001 (86.2%) 1.58 (0.77-2.38) <0.001
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.44
AKI definition
 Decrease in eCCl by at least 20% from baseline 0.06 REM <0.001 (94.5%) 1.07 (0.29-1.84) 0.007
 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL 0.58 REM <0.001 (89.0%) 0.72 (0.37-1.08) <0.001
 GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2 0.36 REM <0.001 (78.8%) 1.25 (0.83-1.67) <0.001
 Doubling of SCr from baseline 0.34 FEM 0.61 (0.0%) 0.07 (-0.29-0.44) 0.69
 Other 0.30 REM <0.001 (92.4%) 2.61 (0.24-5.45) 0.07
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.79
Setting
 PICU 0.69 REM <0.001 (82.1%) 1.50 (1.02-1.99) <0.001
 Cardiac surgery 0.60 REM <0.001 (90.5%) 0.71 (0.41-1.02) <0.001
 Other 0.03 REM <0.001 (91.0%) 1.09 (-1.15-3.33) 0.34
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.02
Sample size
 ≤30 0.04 REM <0.001 (78.0%) 1.90 (0.98-2.82) <0.001
 >30 0.91 REM <0.001 (92.3%) 0.80 (0.50-1.10) <0.001
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.23
Storage degree
 -20 0.01 REM <0.001 (90.0%) 0.82 (-0.19-1.83) 0.11
 -70 0.54 REM <0.001 (91.7%) 1.06 (0.66-1.46) <0.001
 -80 0.60 REM <0.001 (90.3%) 0.97 (0.57-1.41) <0.001
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.005
b) Urine level
Timing of cystain C assessment
 Overall 0.09 REM 0.04 (49.1%) 0.54 (0.34-0.75) <0.001
 Baseline 0.07 REM 0.01 (63.3%) 0.70 (0.37-1.03) <0.001
 1-12 h 0.03 FEM 0.93 (0.0%) 0.38 (0.19-0.58) <0.001
 13-24 h 0.11 REM >0.99 (0.0%) 0.55 (-0.61-1.67) 0.36
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.83
AKI definition
 Decrease in eCCl by at least 20% from baseline 0.32 FEM 0.82 (0.0%) 1.84 (0.78-2.89) 0.007
 50% increase or rise SCr of at least 0.3 mg/dL 0.27 FEM 0.06 (52.2%) 0.56 (0.31-0.82) <0.001
 Doubling of SCr from baseline 0.32 REM 0.04 (49.1%) 0.38 (0.16-0.59) 0.69
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.11
Timing of AKI definition
 Within 24 h 0.74 FEM 0.99 (0.0%) 0.37 (0.23-0.51) 0.18
 Within 48 h 0.18 FEM 0.14 (41.7%) 1.04 (0.55-1.52) <0.001
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.11
Setting
 PICU 0.74 FEM 0.23 (31.1%) 0.91 (0.44-0.74) <0.001
 Cardiac surgery 0.38 FEM 0.99 (0.0%) 0.37 (0.23-0.51) <0.001
 Other 0.04 FEM 0.12 (52.2%) 1.20 (0.18-2.23) 0.02
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.21
Sample size
 ≤30 0.10 FEM 0.20 (34.7%) 0.97 (0.24-1.69) 0.009
 >30 0.04 REM 0.05 (55.2%) 0.49 (0.30-0.69) <0.001
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.34
Storage degree
 -20 0.32 REM 0.08 (68.4%) 0.98 (-0.06-2.02) 0.11
 -80 0.05 FEM 0.11 (40.7%) 0.48 (0.30-0.66) <0.001
  Overall Significant difference among subgroups 0.26
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, CI confidence interval, FEM fixed effect model, REM random effect model, SMD standardized mean difference, Bold values are significant. Significance among subgroups were calculated based on univariate meta-regression analysis