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Table 5 Diagnostic performance characteristics of cystatin C in detection of acute kidney injury

From: Accuracy of cystatin C in prediction of acute kidney injury in children; serum or urine levels: which one works better? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics TP FP FN TN P for publication bias Model P for heterogeneity (I2) Effect size (95% CI)
a) Serum level 543 445 206 1102     
Overall area under the curve      0.08 REM <0.001 (80.0) 0.83 (0.80-0.86)
0.4-1 mg/L 314 361 53 386     
Sensitivity      0.29 REM <0.001 (77.6) 0.85 (0.78-0.90)
Specificity      0.29 REM <0.001 (94.6) 0.61 (0.48-0.73)
Positive likelihood ratio      0.29 REM <0.001 (92.8) 2.18 (1.66-2.88)
Negative likelihood ratio      0.29 REM 0.01 (60.3) 0.24 (0.18-0.34)
1.01-2.5 mg/L 229 84 153 716     
Sensitivity      0.01 REM <0.001 (87.1) 0.65 (0.49-0.77)
Specificity      0.01 REM <0.001 (87.8) 0.88 (0.79-0.94)
Positive likelihood ratio      0.01 REM <0.001 (64.5) 5.56 (3.62-8.53)
Negative likelihood ratio      0.01 REM <0.001 (85.5) 0.40 (0.28-0.56)
b) Urine level 93 37 128 295     
Overall area under the curve      0.07 REM <0.001 (83.3) 0.85 (0.81-0.88)
Sensitivity      0.07 REM <0.001 (83.3) 0.47 (0.29-0.66)
Specificity      0.07 REM 0.09 (54.3) 0.89 (0.83-0.93)
Positive likelihood ratio      0.07 FEM 0.24 (0.0) 4.24 (2.93-6.13)
Negative likelihood ratio      0.07 REM 0.04 (63.2) 0.60 (0.43-0.83)
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, CI confidence interval, FEM fixed effect model, REM random effect model, TP true positive, TN true negative, FP false positive, FN false negative