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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants according to periodontal status in unmatched and matched cohorts

From: Periodontitis and early mortality among adults treated with hemodialysis: a multinational propensity-matched cohort study

Variables Full cohort After propensity score matching
None or mild periodontitis
(n = 1983)
Moderate to severe periodontitis
(n = 1355)
Standardized differenceb None or mild periodontitis
(n = 1355)
Moderate to severe periodontitis
(n = 1355)
Standardized differenceb
Demographics
 Age (years)c 57.3 (16.3) 61.7 (14.5) 0.23 61.8 (14.5) 61.7 (14.5) 0.005
 Country
  Argentina 1304 (65.8) 177 (13.1) 0.99 846 (62.4) 177 (13.1) 0.91
  France 28 (1.4) 11 (0.8) 0.05 27 (2.0) 11 (0.8) 0.08
  Hungary 182 (9.2) 233 (17.2) −0.20 141 (10.4) 233 (17.2) −0.17
  Italy 97 (4.9) 312 (23.0) −0.49 89 (6.6) 312 (23.0) −0.42
  Poland 200 (10.1) 39 (2.9) 0.22 119 (8.8) 39 (2.9) 0.19
  Portugal 169 (8.5) 464 (34.2) −0.58 131 (9.7) 464 (34.2) −0.55
  Spain 3 (0.2) 119 (8.8) −0.42 2 (0.2) 119 (8.8) −0.42
 Menc 1116 (56.3) 852 (62.9) −0.10 838 (61.9) 852 (62.9) −0.02
 European race 1899 (96.4) 1246 (91.9) 0.17 1297 (95.7) 1246 (91.9) 0.13
Socioeconomic characteristics
 Current or former smokerc 381 (31.2) 408 (34.6) −0.06 352 (26.0) 408 (34.6) −0.15
 Married 859 (60.7) 835 (68.0) −0.12 583 (61.2) 835 (68.0) −0.12
 Secondary education 466 (39.4) 460 (40.4) −0.02 331 (38.7) 460 (40.4) −0.03
 Employed 218 (18.1) 148 (12.9) 0.12 149 (16.7) 148 (12.9) 0.09
 Family income above domestic averagec 132 (7.4) 106 (8.2) −0.02 98 (7.6) 106 (8.2) −0.02
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.9 (5.2) 26.7 (5.2) 0.04 26.9 (5.2) 26.7 (5.2) 0.04
Comorbid medical conditions
 Myocardial infarction 112 (10.0) 138 (13.3) −0.09 95 (11.7) 138 (13.3) −0.04
 Stroke 88 (7.8) 125 (12.0) −0.12 70 (8.6) 125 (12.0) −0.12
 Diabetes mellitus 338 (30.3) 335 (29.4) 0.02 238 (29.7) 335 (29.4) 0.005
Laboratory variables
 Serum albumin (g/dL) 3.7 (0.4) 3.9 (0.4) −0.41 3.7 (0.4) 3.9 (0.4) −0.41
 Serum phosphorous (mmol/L) 1.6 (0.5) 1.5 (0.5) 0.16 1.5 (0.5) 1.5 (0.5) 0
 Serum calcium (mmol/L) 2.2 (0.2) 2.2 (0.2) 0 2.2 (0.2) 8.8 (0.8) 0
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 11.0 (1.4) 11.2 (1.3) −0.12 11.1 (1.4) 11.2 (1.3) −0.06
Dialysis characteristics
 Time treated with dialysis (months)c 75.1 (54.9) 84.6 (66.4) −0.13 82.5 (59.1) 84.6 (66.4) −0.02
 Kt/Va 1.7 (0.3) 1.7 (0.3) 0 1.6 (0.3) 1.7 (0.3) −0.27
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 89.0 (13.7) 91.7 (13.7) −0.16 88.8 (13.5) 91.7 (13.7) −0.17
Oral health practices and dental health
 Number of teethc 16.5 (9.4) 17.1 (8.3) −0.05 16.5 (9.2) 17.1 (8.3) −0.05
 Number of decayed, missing, filled teeth 19.4 (8.9) 19.2 (8.1) 0.02 19.3 (8.8) 19.2 (8.1) 0.01
 Use of dental floss 153 (7.8) 115 (8.6) −0.02 90 (6.7) 115 (8.6) −0.06
 Brushing teeth twice or more often per day 1310 (67.1) 854 (64.2) 0.05 874 (65.2) 854 (64.2) 0.05
  1. Data are expressed as mean (SD) or number (%). aKt/V refers to the clearance of urea and is a measure of the amount of dialysis received. Proportions do not always correspond to overall numbers of participants due to missing data. bStandardized differences of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 can be considered to represent small, medium and large differences, respectively [29]. These differences do not denote statistical significance. To convert serum phosphorus from mmol/L to mg/dL, divide by 0.323. To convert calcium from mmol/L to mg/dL, multiply by 0.25. cUsed in propensity score matching
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