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Table 2 Participants characteristics

From: Safety of low-molecular-weight heparin compared to unfractionated heparin in hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Mean age + SD (years) Age range (years) Male/Female
Dialysis duration and frequency Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Cross-over with randomization
 Cianciolo et al. 63.3 ± 7.2 42–72 21/19 4 h 3×/wk chronic HD, age 18+, stable, AVF gastrointestinal bleeding, acute cardiovascular event 3 months before, malignancy, coagulation disorders, DVT, immunosupressive therapy, acute vasculitis, liver disease, active infection, diabetes, enrolled in other clinical trial
 Klejna et al. 68.2 44–82 11/10 4–5 h 3×/wk Chronic HD HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, VTE, gastrointestinal bleeding, coagulation disorders
 Lord et al. 66.6 ± 14.8 NS 17/15 4 h 3×/wk Chronic HD Patients with catheters, with bleeding diathesis in last 3 months, with thrombocytopenia, hepatic failure, oral anticoagulation (but not antiplatelets)
 Saltissi et al. NS 22–85 17/19 3–5 h 3×/wk Chronic HD bleeding disorders, anticoagulation therapy (warfarin, aspirin)
 Stefoni et al. 63.7 ± 7 NS 39/15 4 h 3×/wk Chronic HD for at least 12 months active gastrointestinal bleeding, myeloproliferative disorders, malignant diseases, hereditary deficiency of coagulation factors, LAC phenomenon, antiphospholipid syndrome
Cross-over without randomization
 Al-Saran et al. 46.83 ± 14.63 NS 17/6 3–4 h 3×/wk at least 6 months on HD prior to study bleeding disorders, anemia with hemoglobin levels less than 10 g/dL, recent trauma, surgery, infectious disease or hemorrhagic disorder (< 1 month) in addition to those receiving oral or other forms of anticoagulant therapy (e.g. warfarin, aspirin), or drugs that could affect heparin activity (e.g. tetracyclines, digitalis, and antihistamines)
 Bambauer et al. 60 NS 12/15 NS Chronic HD NS
 Bramham et al. 61 ± 15 NS 65/45 3–4 h 3×/wk Chonic HD on monitoring shift Renal transplant, transferred to satellite unit, switched to PD, on warfarin
 Deuber et al. (part 1) 53 ± 7 47–65 NS 4 h 3×/wk chronic HD for at least 18 months NS
Deuber et al. (part 2) 50 ± 18 20–67 NS 4 h 3×/wk chronic HD for at least 18 months NS
 Kronenberg et al. 44.7 ± 16.8 NS 13/11 3.5–5 h 3×/wk in pre-dialysis diabetes, bleeding disorders, oral anticoagulants, lipid lowering drugs
 Lai et al. 42.2 ± 5.2 24–60 25/15 10–16 h/wk Chronic HD diabetes, primary hyperlipidemia
 Leu et al. 57.8 ± 9.8 NS 7/13 4 h 3×/wk Chronic HD at least 6 months pts with lipid lowering drugs except non-diabetic pts. under lovastatin for >6 months, known hemorrhagic diathesis, low platelet count, liver insufficiency, hypersensitivity to heparin
 Schmitt et al. 58.6 37–72 13/9 4–5.8 h chronic HD, cholesterol >200 mg/dL diabetes, concomittant drug treatment (lipid lowering drugs, COX inhibitors)
 Yang et al. (part 1) 44 ± 15 NS 7/3 3×/wk chronic HD, non diabetic NS
 Yang et al. (part 2) 57 ± 6.4 NS 7/3 3×/wk chronic HD with diabetes type II NS
Parallel with randomization
 Elisaf et al. NS 15–61 NS 4 h 3×/wk chronic HD diabetes, hyperlipidemia (primary or secondary)
 Nurmohamed et al. NS NS NS 4–6 h 2-3×/wk chronic HD NS
 Schrader et al. 54.0 ± 15.2 (LMWH)
51.6 ± 17.9 (UFH)
NS 21/14 (LMWH)
19/16 (UFH)
NS pre-HD requiring HD, not on heparin in prior 3 months bleeding disorders, needed antiplatelets or anticoagulants
  1. NS not specified, HD hemodialysis, PD peritoneal dialysis, hrs hours, wk. week, DVT deep venous thrombosis, VTE venous thromboembolism, AVF arteriovenous fistula