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Table 1 Comparison of AKI patients’ characteristics in different departments

From: Incidence and diagnosis of Acute kidney injury in hospitalized adult patients: a retrospective observational study in a tertiary teaching Hospital in Southeast China

Department Total ICU Other Internal Surgery Nephrology P value
(n = 1401) (n = 356) (n = 520) (n = 422) (n = 103)
Age (years) 63.2 ± 37.2 64.4 ± 17.7 66.2 ± 17.9 59.7 ± 14.5 57.7 ± 18.4 <0.001*
Male (%) 939 (67.0) 249 (69.9) 352 (67.7) 282 (66.8) 56 (54.4) 0.030*
City (%) 816 (62.0) 214 (65.0) 363 (71.7) 191 (50.1) 48 (47.5) <0.001*
Admission eGFR (%)       <0.001*
  ≥ 90 (mL/min/1.73 m2) 461 (32.9) 117 (32.8) 155 (29.8) 184 (43.6) 5 (4.8)  
 60–89 (mL/min/1.73 m2) 357 (25.5) 86 (24.2) 134 (25.8) 130 (30.8) 7 (6.8)  
 30–59 (mL/min/1.73 m2) 266 (19.0) 75 (21.1) 123 (23.6) 55 (13.0) 13 (12.6)  
  < 30 (mL/min/1.73 m2) 317 (22.6) 78 (21.9) 108 (20.8) 53 (12.6) 78 (75.7)  
Comorbidities (%)
 Cardiovascular disease 825 (58.9) 234 (65.7) 307 (59.0) 249 (59.0) 35 (34.0) <0.001*
 Diabetes 251 (17.9) 68 (19.1) 117 (22.5) 57 (13.5) 9 (8.7) <0.001*
 Pre-existing CKD 116 (8.3) 25 (7.0) 50 (9.6) 24 (5.7) 17 (16.5) 0.002*
 Chronic lung disease 91 (6.5) 30 (8.4) 36 (6.9) 11 (2.6) 14 (13.6) <0.001*
 Chronic liver disease 106 (7.6) 28 (7.9) 47 (9.0) 30 (7.1) 1 (1.0) 0.042*
 Malignancy 415 (29.6) 67 (18.8) 201 (38.7) 133 (31.5) 14 (13.6) <0.001*
Susceptible risk factors (%)
 Using diuretics 451 (32.2) 145 (40.7) 175 (33.7) 114 (27.0) 17 (16.5) <0.001*
 Using nephrotoxic antibiotics 418 (29.8) 154 (43.3) 207 (39.8) 41 (9.7) 16 (15.5) <0.001*
 Using contrast Agent 206 (14.7) 33 (9.3) 87 (16.7) 83 (19.7) 3 (2.9) <0.001*
 Hypovolemia 521 (37.2) 220 (62.0) 112 (21.5) 182 (43.1) 7 (6.8) <0.001*
 Operation 514 (36.7) 119 (33.4) 46 (8.8) 346 (82.0) 3 (2.9) <0.001*
 Sepsis 154 (11.0) 78 (21.9) 49 (9.4) 21 (5.0) 6 (5.8) <0.001*
Oliguria (%) 300 (21.4) 121 (34.0) 89 (17.1) 43 (10.2) 47 (45.6) <0.001*
Extra-renal organs failure 674 (48.1) 254 (71.3) 329 (63.3) 188 (44.5) 25 (24.2) <0.001*
AKI Stage (%)       <0.001*
 1 532 (38.0) 107 (20.1) 224 (42.1) 189 (35.5) 12 (2.3)  
 2 309 (22.1) 67 (21.7) 120 (38.8) 112 (36.2) 10 (3.2)  
 3 560 (40.0) 182 (32.5) 176 (31.4) 121 (21.6) 81 (14.5)  
AKI classification (%)       0.068
 Pre-renal 589 (42.1) 121 (20.5) 224 (38.0) 239 (40.6) 5 (0.8)  
 Renal 731 (52.2) 229 (31.3) 279 (38.1) 136 (18.6) 88 (12.0)  
 Post-renal 80 (5.7) 6 (7.5) 17 (21.2) 47 (58.8) 10 (12.5)  
Interval between admission and AKI diagnosed (days) 5 (1,11) 4 (1,11) 5 (1,12) 7 (3,12) 1 (0,2) <0.001*
Diagnosis (%)
 Timely 616 (44.0) 192 (54.2) 243 (46.7) 92 (21.8) 88 (85.4) <0.001*
 Delayed 46 (3.3) 14 (3.9) 15 (2.9) 13 (3.1) 4 (3.9) 0.008*
 Missed 739 (52.7) 149 (41.9) 262 (50.4) 317 (75.1) 11 (10.7) <0.001*
Only 2 SCr detection (%) 59 (4.2) 8 (2.25) 36 (6.9) 14 (3.3) 1 (1.0) <0.001*
Renal prognosis (%)       <0.001*
 Complete recovery 628 (44.8) 132 (37.1) 193 (37.1) 274 (64.9) 29 (28.2)  
 Partial recovery 178 (12.7) 28 (7.9) 76 (14.6) 50 (11.8) 24 (23.3)  
 Loss of renal function 321 (22.9) 122 (34.3) 112 (21.5) 44 (10.4) 43 (41.7)  
 No dataa 274 (19.6) 74 (20.8) 139 (26.7) 54 (12.8) 7 (6.8)  
 RRT dependence 228 (16.3) 88 (24.7) 46 (8.8) 34 (8.1) 60 (58.3) <0.001*
ICU stay (days) 0 (0–5) 11 (5–21) 0 (0–0) 1 (0–2) 0 (0–0) <0.001*
Hospital stay (days) 22.3 ± 19.8 23.6 ± 22.2 19.6 ± 17.7 26.0 ± 21.1 17.3 ± 9.9 <0.001*
Costs (thousand CNY) 57.2 (25.0–121.6) 106.6 (50.9–199.1) 34.3 (15.0–64.8) 80.6 (39.3–134.6) 23.8 (14.7–37.0) <0.001*
30-day mortality 495 (35.3%) 227 (63.8%) 204 (39.2%) 51 (12.1%) 13 (12.6%) <0.001*
  1. areferred to no SCr detection after diagnosis of acute kidney injury. *: P < 0.05.
  2. AKI acute kidney injury, CKD chronic kidney disease, CNY Chinese yuan, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ICU intensive care unit, RRT renal replacement therapy