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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of derivation and validation cohorts in male and female groups

From: Prediction of new onset of end stage renal disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus – a population-based retrospective cohort study

Characteristics Male Female
Derivation cohort (n = 36,289) Validation cohort (n = 18,145) Derivation cohort (n = 41,347) Validation cohort (n = 20,674)
Socio-demographics
 Age,years 61.4 ± 10.0 61.4 ± 10.0 62.7 ± 9.9 62.8 ± 9.8
 Smoker 7627 (21.0%) 3843 (21.2%) 923 (2.2%) 411 (2.0%)
Disease characteristics
 Duration of T2DM, years 6.8 ± 6.1 6.9 ± 6.4 7.4 ± 6.7 7.4 ± 6.6
 Diagnosed Hypertension 24,862 (68.5%) 12,488 (68.8%) 30,857 (74.6%) 15,436 (74.7%)
 STDR 2111 (5.8%) 1057 (5.8%) 1961 (4.7%) 934 (4.5%)
Treatment modalities
 Anti-hypertensive drugs used 27,294 (75.2%) 13,573 (74.8%) 31,845 (77.0%) 15,980 (77.3%)
 Anti-glucose oral drugs used 32,296 (89.0%) 16,102 (88.7%) 35,875 (86.8%) 17,977 (87.0%)
 Insulin used 929 (2.6%) 475 (2.6%) 983 (2.4%) 509 (2.5%)
 Lipid-lowering agents used 9016 (24.8%) 4639 (25.6%) 12,480 (30.2%) 6245 (30.2%)
Clinical parameters
 BMI, kg/m2 25.4 ± 3.8 25.5 ± 3.8 25.6 ± 4.2 25.5 ± 4.3
 Waist circumference, cm 90.7 ± 19.8 90.8 ± 17.8 87.5 ± 20.8 87.6 ± 24.5
 HbA1c, % 7.2 ± 1.3 7.2 ± 1.3 7.2 ± 1.2 7.2 ± 1.2
 HbA1c, mmol/mol 55 ± 14.2 55 ± 14.2 55 ± 13.1 55 ± 13.1
 SBP, mmHg 134.0 ± 15.9 134.2 ± 16.1 134.6 ± 16.5 134.7 ± 16.4
 DBP, mmHg 77.0 ± 9.8 77.1 ± 9.7 73.7 ± 9.7 73.7 ± 9.6
 LDL-C, mmol/L 2.9 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.8
 TC/HDL-C ratio 4.3 ± 1.2 4.3 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 1.1 4.0 ± 1.1
 Triglyceride, mmol/L 1.6 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.9
 Urine ACR, mg/mmol 6.8 ± 40.6 7.0 ± 41.7 6.8 ± 37.9 7.2 ± 52.0
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73m2
   ≥ 90 26,683 (73.5%) 13,277 (73.2%) 29,839 (72.2%) 14,857 (71.9%)
  60–89 8694 (24.0%) 4381 (24.1%) 9906 (24.0%) 5041 (24.4%)
  < 60 912 (2.5%) 487 (2.7%) 1601 (3.9%) 776 (3.8%)
  1. T2DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, STDR Sight Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy, BMI Body Mass Index, HbA1c Haemogloblin A1c, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, LDL-C Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, TC Total Cholesterol, HDL-C High-density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, ACR Albumin/Creatinine Ratio, eGFR estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate