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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data at the onset of the disease

From: The impact of IgM deposits on the outcome of Nephrotic syndrome in children

  IgM + (n = 18) IgM – (n = 27) p value
First manifestation
 Age, yearsa 4.51 (0.96–14.23) 4.09 (1.02–17.05) 0.926
Gender, n (%)    0.371
 Boys 12/18 (66.7) 14/27 (51.9)  
 Girls 6/18 (33.3) 13/27 (48.1)  
Clinical data, n (%)
 Hematuria 13/18 (72.2) 17/27 (63.0) 0.748
 Hypertension 7/18 (38.9) 11/27 (40.8) 1
 Decreased GFR 2/18 (11.1) 5/27 (18.5) 0.684
 Extrarenal symptoms 5/18 (27.8) 2/27 (7.4) 0.098
Primary response to steroids, n (%)
 Sensitive 10/18 (55.6) 15/27 (55.6) 1
 Dependent 2/18 (11.1) 7/27 (25.9) 0.279
 Resistant 6/18 (33.3) 5/27 (18.5) 0.304
Treatment, nb(%)
 Only steroids 3/18 (16.7) 8/27 (29.6) 0.482
 Cumulative dose of steroids 523.3 mg/kg 429.6 mg/kg 0.8
 Cyclosporine 15/18 (83.3) 18/27 (66.7) 0.308
 Mycophenolate mofetil 4/18 (22.2) 4/27 (14.8) 0.694
 Cyclophosphamide 6/18 (33.3) 9/27 (33.3) 1
 Rituximab 3/18 (16.7) 1/27 (3.7) 0.286
 Levomisole 3/18 (16.7) 4/27 (14.8) 1
Biopsy results, n (%)    0.049
 Minimal change disease 8/18 (44.4) 16/27 (59.3)  
 Mesangial hypercellularity 1/18 (5.6) 6/27 (22.2)  
 Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 9/18 (50.0) 5/27 (18.5)  
  1. aValues are given as median, with the range in parenthesis
  2. bTotal number of patients treated with each drug
  3. Imunofluorescence findings: out of 18 IgM positive biopsies, 11 were IgM 1+ positive (61.1%), 5 were IgM 2+ positive (27.8%) and 2 were IgM 3+ positive (11.1%). 8 (44.4%) biopsies contained other deposits: 6 had C3 deposits (33.3%), also IgA and IgG deposits were each present in 4 (22.2%) biopsies. Electron microscopy was performed for 23 biopsies. Electron dense deposits were found in 3 biopsies (33.3%), all in IgM positive group