Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient and lesion characteristics

From: Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for characterization of kidney lesions in patients with and without chronic kidney disease

  Total (N = 44) (+) CKD (n = 25) (−) CKD (n = 19)
Age (years)
 Mean ± S.D. 56 ± 14 59 ± 13 51 ± 14
Male 31 (70%) 18 (72%) 13 (68%)
Co-morbid conditions    
 Hypertension 30 (68%) 20 (80%) 10 (53%)
 Diabetes 10 (23%) 5 (20%) 5 (26%)
 Hyperlipidemia 22 (50%) 13 (52%) 9 (47%)
 Cardiovascular disease 9 (20%) 8 (32%) 1 (5%)
 History of renal cell carcinoma 3 (7%) 2 (8%) 1 (5%)
 Obesitya 22 (50%) 11 (44%) 11 (58%)
Initial Studyb
 Non-contrast CT 11 (25%) 8 (32%) 3 (16%)
 Contrast CT 20 (45%) 5 (20%) 15 (79%)
 Non-contrast MR 1 (2%) 0 1 (5%)
 Contrast MR 6 (14%) 1 (4%) 5 (26%)
 Conventional US 17 (39%) 17 (68%) 0
Laterality of lesion
 Right 19 (43%) 12 (48%) 7 (37%)
 Left 20 (45%) 9 (36%) 11 (58%)
 Bilateral 5 (11%) 4 (16%) 1 (5%)
Laterality of imaging
 Right 21 (48%) 14 (56%) 7 (37%)
 Left 23 (52%) 11 (44%) 12 (63%)
Diameter by imaging (cm)c
 Mean (range) 3.27 (1.4–7.9) 3.09 (1.4–7.9) 3.51 (1.4–6.6)
Diameter by histology (cm)d
 Mean (range) 3.39 (0.4–7)
(n = 20)
2.88 (0.4–5.6)
(n = 4)
3.51 (1.2–7)
(n = 16)
Diagnosis
 Clear cell RCC 14 (32%) 1 (4%) 13 (68%)
 Papillary RCC 5 (11%) 3 (12%) 2 (11%)
 Chromophobe RCC 2 (4%) 1 (4%) 1 (5%)
 Angiomyolipoma 1 (2%) 0 1 (5%)
 Oncocytoma 1 (2%) 0 1 (5%)
 Surveillance 21 (48%) 20 (80%) 1 (5%)
  Stable/benign 19 19 0
  Progressed/malignant 2 1 1
CKD stage
 Non-CKD 19 (43%) 0 19 (100%)
 CKD II 2 (4%) 2 (8%) 0
 CKD III 9 (20%) 9 (36%) 0
 CKD IV 4 (9%) 4 (16%) 0
 CKD V on dialysis 7 (16%) 7 (28%) 0
 Transplant 3 (7%) 3 (12%) 0
Probable cause of CKD
 Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis   11 (44%)  
 Diabetic Kidney Disease   4 (16%)  
 Hypertension/Diabetic Kidney Disease   1 (4%)  
 Polycystic Kidney Disease   2 (8%)  
 Chronic Interstitial Nephritis   2 (8%)  
 Membranous Nephropathy   1 (4%)  
 Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis   1 (4%)  
 Medullary Sponge Kidney   1 (4%)  
 NSAID-induced Nephropathy   1 (4%)  
 Lithium Nephrotoxicity   1 (4%)  
  1. CKD chronic kidney disease, CT computed tomography, MR magnetic resonance imaging, US ultrasound, RCC renal cell carcinoma
  2. aDefined as BMI ≥ 30
  3. bPercentages add to greater than 100% as 11 patients had multiple studies prior to CEUS
  4. cBy largest dimension
  5. dOne sample was resected in multiple pieces with no histologic diameter available