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Table 4 Accuracy of CEUS based on severity of CKD compared to the secondary reference standarda

From: Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for characterization of kidney lesions in patients with and without chronic kidney disease

  Reader 1 Reader 2 Combined readers
Early CKD
(eGFR ≥30 mL/min)
(N = 11)
Advanced CKD
(eGFR <30 mL/min)
(N = 14)
Early CKD
(eGFR ≥30 mL/min)
(N = 11)
Advanced CKD
(eGFR <30 mL/min)
(N = 14)
Early CKD
(eGFR ≥30 mL/min)
(N = 11)
Advanced CKD
(eGFR <30 mL/min)
(N = 14)
Sensitivity 100%
(100%, 100%)
[2/2]
67%
(13%, 100%)
[2/3]
100%
(100%, 100%)
[2/2]
100%
(100%, 100%)
[3/3]
100%
(100%, 100%)
83%
(42%, 97%)
Specificity 78%
(20%, 100%)
[7/9]
55%
(25%, 84%)
[6/11]
67%
(36%, 97%)
[6/9]
27%
(1%, 54%)
[3/11]
72%
(40%, 91%)
41%
(20%, 66%)
Overall Accuracy
(no. correct/total)
82%
(59%, 100%)
[9/11]
57%
(31%, 83%)
[8/14]
73%
(46%, 99%)
[8/11]
43%
(17%, 69%)
[6/14]
77%
(48%, 93%)
50%
(29%, 71%)
  1. aResults presented as accuracy metrics (95% CI) and [positive or negative reads/total reads]. CEUS images were read by 2 independent readers. Results were considered per reader and as a combination of the 2 readers. For combined reader result, generalized estimating equations were used considering two readers’ values as repeated measurements (or responses)
  2. Abbreviations: CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate