Skip to main content

Table 1 Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among low and middle income countries stratified by urban-rural geography

From: Urbanization and kidney function decline in low and middle income countries

Country, year [ref] Ethnicity Criteria/classification used Overall (%) Urban (%) Rural (%)
Cameroon, 2013 [24] African any albuminuria and/or eGFR < 60 ml/min 14.2 14.2 NA
Cameroon, 2014 [25] African MDRD 13.2 10.9 14.1
Tanzania, 2014 [26] African MDRD/albuminuria 7.0 15.2 2.0
Sub-Saharan systematic review, 2014 Sub-Saharan MDRD/CKD-EPI and albuminuria 13.9 12.4 16.5
Thailand, 2004 [27] Asian MDRD 8.5 8.0 9.2
Thailand, 2008 [28] Asian Spot quantitative urine protein and eGFR (MDRD) 17.5 23.1 15.8
Thailand, 2006 [29] Asian eGFR (MDRD) 13.2   
Turkey, 2005 [30] Turks eGFR (MDRD) 5.8 4.9 6.6
India, 2005 [31] Asian eGFR (MDRD) 17.2   
India, 2016 [32] Asian CG-BSA 16.5 NA 16.54
China, 2001 [33] Asian eGFR (MDRD) 2.53 2.60 2.52
China, 2006 [34] Asian eGFR (MDRD)/albuminuria 12.1 12.1  
China, 2006 [35] Asian eGFR (MDRD)/albuminuria 15.2   15.2
China, 2006 [36] Asian eGFR (MDRD) and albuminuria 13.0 13.0 13.1
China, 2009 [37] Asian eGFR (MDRD)/albuminuria 10.8 8.9 11.3
China, 2010 [38] Asian eGFR (MDRD)/albuminuria 9.50 9.58 9.42