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Table 2 Known potential causes of CKD in LMICs

From: Urbanization and kidney function decline in low and middle income countries

Risk factors
I. Lifestyle
 a. Sedentary lifestyle
 b. Increased caloric intake
 c. High intake of calorie-rich foods, sodas, red meat and decreased intake of fruits and vegetables
 d. High sodium intake
 e. Lack of sleep
II. Non-Communicable Diseases
 a. Obesity
 b. Diabetes, Type II
 c. Hypertension
 d. Poor management of diabetes and hypertension (poor medication adherence)
III. Environmental Factors
 a. Food insecurity and poverty
 b. Air/water pollution and industrial waste products
 c. Heavy metals (lead, Cadmium, arsenic, gold, mercury and uranium)
 d. Plastics and resins (Bisphenols)
e. Over-the-counter drug and Counterfeit drugs
 f. Pesticides, hardness of water,
 g. Superphosphates,
 h. Arsenic-contaminated fertilizers and cyanogens from algae
IV. Infections
 a. Tuberculosis
 b. Hepatitis B and C
 c. Malaria and other viral vector borne diseases (dengue and yellow fever)
 d. Parasitic diseases including schistosomiasis, filariasis, and leishmaniasis