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Table 3 Potential confounders of the association between biomarkers and outcomes

From: Predictors of Acute Renal Injury Study (PARIS) among HIV-positive individuals: design and methods

Potential confounders Outcomes
Incident hospitalized AKI Subsequent kidney function
Socio demographic Age Baseline Baseline
Race Baseline Baseline
Gender Baseline Baseline
Injection drug use Baseline Time-varying post-discharge
Baseline CKD Albuminuria Baseline Baseline
eGFR Baseline Baseline
Chronic Co-morbid Conditions HCV co-infection Baseline history Baseline history
Diabetes Mellitus Baseline history Baseline history
Hypertension Baseline history, ambulatory systolic & diastolic blood pressure Baseline history, ambulatory systolic & diastolic blood pressure
Cardiovascular disease Baseline history Baseline history
HIV Disease Stage AIDS history Time-updated absorbent state Time-updated absorbent state
CD4+ cell count Time-varying Time-varying
HIV-1 RNA level Time-varying Time-varying
Medication Exposure Antiretroviral drugs (evaluated as HAART, ART classes and individual drugs) Cumulative Cumulative post-discharge
NSAIDs Cumulative Cumulative post-discharge
RAS-antagonist Cumulative Cumulative post-discharge
Hospitalization-related factors Antibiotic (by class) Cumulative In-patient exposure
IV contrast In-patient exposure
AKI AKI stage; peak serum creatinine
Intensive care unit stay In-patient exposure
Duration of hospitalization  
Primary discharge diagnosis Categorized: Cardiovascular, infectious, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cancer, other
Anthropometric measurements Weight Baseline Baseline
Height Baseline Baseline
Waist circumference Baseline Baseline
Hip circumference Baseline Baseline
  1. AKI Acute Kidney Injury, CKD Chronic Kidney Disease, eGFR estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; HCV Hepatitis C Virus, AIDS acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, CD4 Cluster of Differentiation 4; Human Immunodeficiency Virus; HAART Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, ART Antiretroviral Therapy; HIV: NSAIDs Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, RAS Renin-Angiotensin System, IV Intra-Venous