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Table 1 Clinical characteristics stratified by 3 serum chloride subgroups at the time of ICU admission: Hyperchloremia (Cl0 ≥ 110 mEq/L); Normochloremia, (Cl0 100–109 mEq/L); and Hypochloremia (Cl0 ≤ 100 mEq/L)

From: Effect of hyperchloremia on acute kidney injury in critically ill septic patients: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Admission Serum Chloride (Cl0)
≥110 mEq/L
(n = 303)
Admission Serum Chloride (Cl0)
101–109 mEq/L
(n = 561)
Admission Serum Chloride (Cl0)
≤100 mEq/L
(n = 181)
P-value
Demographics
 Age, years, mean ± SD 67.9 ± 15.6 64.8 ± 16.7 67.0 ± 14.6 0.0146*
 Male, % 44.9% 53.7% 55.8% 0.0214*
 African-American, % 42.6% 33.2% 24.9% 0.0002*
Chronic conditions
 Baseline SCr, mg/dl, median (IQR) 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.0794
 Baseline eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2, median (IQR) 57.0 (40.4–76.8) 63.1 (44.2–87.9) 61.2 (42.1–88.0) 0.1032
 Diabetes, % 23.8% 20.1% 21.6% 0.4648
 Hypertension, % 46.5% 46.5% 43.7% 0.8050
 Heart failure, % 3.3% 2.1% 4.4% 0.2423
 Anemia, % 88.6% 85.1% 74.4% 0.0001*
Drug Exposure
 Diuretic, % 44.2% 44.0% 55.8% 0.0161*
 Statin, % 28.7% 30.8% 30.4% 0.8073
 Iodine contrast, % 27.7% 33.9% 29.3% 0.1446
 Aminoglycoside, % 8.3% 6.1% 1.7% 0.0119*
Critical indicators
 Oliguria, % 9.0% 6.2% 5.3% 0.2467
 CFB 72 h, liters, median (IQR) 3.1 (−0.1–8.0) 2.0 (−0.5–5.4) 0.75 (−2.1–3.8) 0.0005*
 Pressor or inotrope, % 37.3% 30.1% 27.6% 0.0408*
 Mechanical ventilation, % 51.2% 39.4% 33.2% <0.0001*
 Red blood cell transfusion, % 6.6% 2.0% 0.6% <0.0001*
 Base Deficit, mmol/L
 Median (IQR)
3.6 (1.7–6.4) 1.1 (−1.7–4.0) −2.6 (−7.4–2.4) <0.0001
 APACHE II score, mean ± SD 14.9 ± 7.0 12.1 ± 5.9 11.80 ± 5.06* <0.0001
 SOFA score, mean ± SD 5.8 ± 3.8 4.5 ± 3.4 4.4 ± 3.4* <0.0001
  1. *eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate based on Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation; SCr = serum creatinine; iodine contrast only if intravenous or intra-arterial; CFB = cumulative fluid balance; oliguria defined as urine output less than 500 ml in 24 h; anemia = admission hematocrit <39% for men and <36% for women; APACHE II = Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; SOFA = Sequential Organ Failure Assessment