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Table 2 Univariable analyses of determinants of any AKI and multivariable analyses investigating the association between chloride levels on ICU admission and 1) any AKI at 72 h and 2) moderate/severe AKI at 72 h

From: Effect of hyperchloremia on acute kidney injury in critically ill septic patients: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Any AKI Any AKI
Hyperchloremic Subgroup
Moderate/Severe AKI
Hyperchloremic Subgroup
Odds Ratio
Univariable
P-value Odds Ratio
Multivariable
P-value Odds Ratio
Multivariable
P-value
Cl0
per mEq/L increase
1.01
(0.94–1.09)
0.7317 0.99
(0.89–1.09)
0.8072 0.95
(0. 81–1.11)
0.5200
Age, years 1.00
(0.98–1.01)
0.5412
Male 1.65
(0.95–2.87)
0.0774 1.72
(0.80–3.69)
0.1625 3.03
(0.89–10.29)
0.0750
African-American 1.25
(0.72–2.17)
0.4338
Baseline eGFR
per mL/min/1.73m2
1.00
(0.99–1.01)
0.9957
Diabetes 0.61
(0.30–1.23)
0.1672 0.54
(0.22–1.35)
0.1874 0.75
(0.22–2.61)
0.6514
Hypertension 0.63
(0.36–1.10)
0.1045 0.753
(0.37–1.54)
0.4370 1.02
(0.36–2.93)
0.9655
Heart failure 3.97
(1.11–14.15)
0.0338 3.86
(0.93–16.06)
0.0633 1.90
(0.22–16.62)
0.5640
Anemia 1.26
(0.50–3.18)
0.6305
Diuretic 2.37
(1.34–4.16)
0.0028 2.631
(1.21–5.74)
0.0150 1.75
(0.56–5.45)
0.3362
Statin 0.64
(0.33–1.22)
0.1760 0.47
(0.21–1.07)
0.0728 1.00
(0.31–3.22)
0.9996
Iodine contrast 1.24
(0.68–2.27)
0.4783
Aminoglycoside 1.20
(0.46–3.14)
0.7131
Oliguria 5.35
(2.25–12.72)
0.0002 3.54
(1.20–10.46)
0.0223 10.77
(2.84–40.85)
0.0005
CFB 72 h
per 100 ml increase
1.00
(1.00–1.02)
0.0342 1.00
(1.00–1.01)
0.1772 1.05
(1.00–1.01)
0.0910
Pressor or inotrope 2.49
(1.42–4.37)
0.0014 1.28
(0.53–3.05)
0.5839 1.77
(0.45–6.87)
0.4122
Mechanical ventilation 1.96
(1.11–3.46)
0.0212 0.84
(0.34–2.03)
0.6944 0.72
(0.19–2.76)
0.6359
Red blood cell transfusion 0.64
(0.18–2.26)
0.4908
Base Deficit
per mEq/L increase
1.03
(0.98–1.09)
0.2254 1.06
0.99–1.14
0.1211 1.10
(1.00–1.20)
0.0512
APACHE II score, per unit increase 1.05
(1.01–1.09)
0.0231
SOFA score
per unit increase
1.19
(1.11–1.29)
<.0001 1.12
(0.99–1.27)
0.0772 1.06
(0.88–1.27)
0.5502
  1. *eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate based on Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation; SCr = serum creatinine; iodine contrast only if intravenous or intra-arterial; CFB = cumulative fluid balance; oliguria defined as urine output less than 500 ml in 24 h; anemia = admission hematocrit <39% for men and <36% for women; APACHE II = Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; SOFA = Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. Any AKI, KDIGO Stage ≥1 SCr-based; Moderate/severe AKI, KDIGO Stage ≥2 SCr-based
  2. The univariate logistic regression analyses are investigating 20 variables as potential predictors of AKI. The two multivariate models are investigating the association between chloride levels on admission (Cl0) and 1) any AKI at 72 h and 2) moderate/severe AKI at 72 h in the hyperchloremic subgroup. Both models are adjusted for variables with P-value <0.25 on univariate analysis. Variables included for confounding adjustment in the final model are gender, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, diuretics, statins, oliguria, cumulative fluid balance, pressor or inotrope, mechanical ventilation, base deficit and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) was not included in either multivariable model because of collinearity with SOFA score