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Table 2 Comparison of biochemical and immunological data in cases of nephrotic and nephritic syndrome. Figures are presented as mean (SD), median (IQR) and number (%)

From: Proteinuric kidney disease in children at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi

Parameter (reference range) Nephrotic syndrome Nephritic syndrome p-value
(n = 15) (n = 10)
Age, years 8.4 (3.8) 7.9 (2.6) 0.61
HIV status
 HIV negative 13 (87%) 9 (90%)  
 HIV unknown 2 (13%) 1 (10%)
Albumin (35–50 mg/dl)
 Baseline 13 (8–16) 25 (22–28) < 0.001
 3 months 36 (18–43) 38 (30–39) 0.26
Creatinine(0.2–1.1 mg/dl)a
 Baseline 0.6 (0.3–1.5) 0.8 (0.6–1.7) 0.22
 3 months 0.9 (0.2–1.0) 0.6 (0.3–1.0) 0.79
eGFR (65–135 ml/min/1.73m2)a
 Baseline 100 (47–175) 40 (34–95) 0.95
 3 months 95 (73–275) 116 (49–164) 0.83
Complement C3 (0.88–2.52 g/L)
 Baseline 1.9 (1.5–2.5) 0.87 (0.4–1.6) 0.0027
 3 months 1.6 (1.5–1.7) 1.7 (1.4–2.0) 0.23
Complement C4(0.12–0.75 g/L)
 Baseline 0.5 (0.3–0.6) 0.31 (0.26–0.37) 0.96
 3 months 0.3 (0.3–0.5) 0.31 (0.25–0.35) 0.54
CRP (0-10 mg/dl)
 Baseline 6.7 (2.4–25.9) 4.9 (0.7–16.5) 0.99
 3 months 0.3 (0–0.8) 1.3 (0.4–4.1) 0.99
ASOT (0-200 IU/ml)
 Baseline 68 (19–78) 206 (131–528) 0.0012
 3 months 70 (60–118) 163 (101–206) 0.0143
IgA (0.2–3.58 g/L)
 Baseline 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 1.50 (1.3–1.7) 0.30
 3 months 1.0 (0.9–1.5) 1.46 (1.3–1.6) 0.09
IgM (0.19–2.39 g/L)
 Baseline 1.4 (1.3–1.7) 1.3 (1.1–1.7) 0.69
 3 months 1.1 (1.0–1.6) 1.25 (1,0–1.6) 0.52
IgG (4.5–17.1 g/L)
 Baseline 5.4 (4.4–12.9) 15.9 (12.4–19.1) 0.007
 3 months 10.3 (10.1–11.7) 16.4 (13.8–19) 0.0006
  1. Ig Immunoglobulin, ASOT Antistreptolysin O titre, CRP C-Reactive Protein, eGFR estimated Glomerular filtration rate
  2. aAge and sex dependent