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Table 1 The clinical characteristics of the study subjects at enrollment stratified by serum klotho level

From: The association between soluble klotho and cardiovascular parameters in chronic kidney disease: results from the KNOW-CKD study

Characteristics Total (N = 2101) Klotho groups P-value P for trend
1st quartile (n = 524) (99–419 pg/mL) 2nd quartile (n = 528) (420–536 pg/mL) 3rd quartile (n = 523) (537–666 pg/mL) 4th quartile (n = 526) (667–3641 pg/mL)
Age (mean ± SD) 53.6 ± 12.2 54.0 ± 11.8 54.6 ± 11.9 53.5 ± 12.2 52.2 ± 12.5 0.015 0.007
Gender, male, n (%) 1284 (61.1) 330 (63.0) 319 (60.4) 317 (60.6) 318 (60.5) 0.795 0.440
BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 ± 3.4 24.8 ± 3.5 24.6 ± 3.2 24.5 ± 3.4 24.2 ± 3.3 0.036 0.005
DM, n (%) 712 (33.9) 171 (32.6) 192 (36.4) 172 (32.9) 177 (33.7) 0.560 0.962
HTN, n (%) 2020 (96.1) 507 (96.8) 517 (97.9) 501 (95.8) 495 (94.1) 0.011 0.007
SBP (mmHg) 128.5 ± 16.4 129.3 ± 16.1 128.5 ± 16.6 127.9 ± 16.9 128.5 ± 16.1 0.599 0.370
DBP (mmHg) 76.9 ± 11.2 76.7 ± 11.8 77.0 ± 11.1 76.6 ± 11.2 77.2 ± 10.5 0.786 0.667
ACEi or ARB, yes, n (%) 1795 (85.6) 458 (87.4) 461 (87.5) 442 (84.7) 434 (82.7) 0.075 0.013
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 53.0 ± 30.7 48.2 ± 28.6 47.6 ± 27.8 54.6 ± 31.6 61.7 ± 32.5 <  0.001 <  0.001
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.8 ± 2.0 12.6 ± 1.9 12.6 ± 2.0 12.9 ± 2.0 13.3 ± 2.1 0.001 <  0.001
Uric acid (mg/dL) 7.0 ± 1.9 7.4 ± 2.0 7.2 ± 1.9 6.9 ± 1.9 6.6 ± 1.8 <  0.001 <  0.001
Albumin (g/dL) 4.2 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.5 0.316 0.068
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 174.3 ± 39.4 174.0 ± 39.3 172.0 ± 38.0 172.5 ± 40.3 178.8 ± 39.6 0.021 0.053
CRP, median, (Q1, Q3) (mg/dL) 0.06 (0.02, 0.17) 0.08 (0.03, 0.20) 0.06 (0.03, 0.16) 0.06 (0.02, 0.16) 0.05 (0.02, 0.13) <  0.001 <  0.001
Phosphorus (mg/dL) 3.7 ± 0.7 3.8 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 0.6 0.004 0.001
Corrected Ca (mg/dL) 9.0 ± 0.4 9.0 ± 0.4 9.0 ± 0.5 9.0 ± 0.4 8.9 ± 0.4 0.505 0.530
Klotho, median (Q1, Q3) (pg/mL) 536 (420, 667) 335 (269, 383) 479 (449, 505) 593 (562, 626) 788 (714, 913) <  0.001 <  0.001
25(OH)VitD, median (Q1, Q3) (ng/mL) 16.5 (12.7, 21.3) 16.7(13.5, 21.7) 16.6(13.1, 21.2) 16.4(12.6, 21.3) 16.1(12.1, 21.0) 0.040 0.005
1,25(OH)2VitD, median (Q1, Q3) (pg/mL) 25.4 (20.1, 33.7) 26.4 (20.1, 36.2) 24.6 (19.1, 31.6) 24.3 (19.4, 32.5) 26.6 (21.4, 34.4) <  0.001 0.599
iPTH, median (Q1, Q3) (pg/mL) 51.5 (33.2, 84.0) 55.0 (35.0, 86.1) 53.0 (34.5, 88.8) 52.6 (33.9, 86.8) 46.3 (30.2, 74.8) 0.005 0.003
C-terminal FGF23, median (Q1, Q3) (RU/mL) 17.9 (0.4, 31.3) 18.5 (0.3, 30.2) 19.0 (1.0, 32.3) 18.6 (0.8, 31.5) 10.4 (0.2, 31.4) 0.094 0.419
UACR, > 300 mg/g, n (%) 884 (49.9) 217 (52.3) 255 (56.0) 205 (45.5) 207 (45.9) <  0.001 <  0.001
LVMI, median (Q1, Q3) (g/m2.7) 40.3 (33.8, 48.6) 41.3 (34.7, 50.2) 40.9 (34.4, 49.2) 39.5 (33.5, 49.3) 39.6 (32.5, 46.7) < 0.001 <  0.001
LVH, n (%) 509 (24.8) 145 (28.3) 139 (27.0) 128 (24.8) 97 (19.2) 0.004 0.001
LV geometry, n (%)       0.084 0.006
 Normal 1248 (60.9) 303 (59.1) 304 (59.0) 316 (61.2) 325 (64.2)   
 Concentric remodeling 293 (14.3) 65 (12.7) 72 (14.0) 72 (14.0) 84 (16.6)   
 Eccentric LVH 254 (12.4) 76 (14.8) 70 (13.6) 60 (11.6) 48 (9.5)   
 Concentric LVH 255 (12.4) 69 (13.5) 69 (13.4) 68 (13.2) 49 (9.7)   
baPWV (cm/s) 1534 ± 344 1552 ± 348 1552 ± 322 1527 ± 357 1507 ± 347 0.127 0.024
ahfPWV (cm/s) 1018 ± 274 1053 ± 300 1028 ± 257 1005 ± 277 989 ± 258 0.022 0.002
AAC ≥ 1, n (%) 703 (35.0) 172 (35.0) 194 (38.0) 183 (36.6) 154 (30.6) 0.079 0.127
CACS > 100, n (%) 498 (24.6) 133 (26.2) 131 (25.7) 121 (24.0) 113 (22.6) 0.528 0.143
LVEF < 50% 30 (1.5) 8 (1.5) 5 (1.0) 7 (1.3) 10 (2.0) 0.607 0.497
E/E’ > 15 176 (8.6) 46 (9.0) 47 (9.1) 42 (8.2) 41 (8.1) 0.923 0.536
  1. a1243 patients measured hfPWV (vs. 1907 patients measured baPWV) at the study enrollment
  2. SD, standard deviation; BMI, body mass index; DM, diabetes mellitus; HTN, hypertension; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI creatinine equation; CRP, C-reactive protein; Ca, calcium; 25(OH)VitD, 25-hydroxy vitamin D; 1,25(OH)2VitD, 1,25-hydroxy vitamin D; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone; FGF23, fibroblast growth factor 23; UACR, random urine albumin-creatinine ratio; ACEi, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; baPWV, brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity; hfPWV, heart-to-femoral pulse wave velocity; AAC, Abdominal aorta calcification; CACS, coronary artery calcium score; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; E/E’, ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E’)