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Table 2 Sex differences in the incidence and severity of autoimmune diseases

From: What we do and do not know about women and kidney diseases; questions unanswered and answers unquestioned: reflection on World Kidney Day and International Woman’s Day

  SLE RA SS
Peak Incidence Reproductive age Perimenopausal After 50-60 years
Female/Male Ratio Peak 15:1 Peak 4:1 Peak 14:1
Total 9:1 After 60 years 1:1 Total 3:1
Influence of Estrogen High levels Negative Positive ?
Low levels ? Negative Negative
  1. SLE Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, RA Rheumatoid Arthritis, SS Systemic Scleroderma