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Table 1 Baseline demographic, clinical, laboratory, and hemodynamic characteristics of the study population by eGFR

From: Epidemiology and risk factors in CKD patients with pulmonary hypertension: a retrospective study

  All CKD1 CKD2 CKD3 CKD4 CKD5
No. of patients 705 84 63 108 132 318
Age (years) 48.12 ± 15.02 39.50 ± 15.59 45.49 ± 15.10 49.52 ± 15.15 51.54 ± 15.30 46.44 ± 14.63
Gender
 Male, n (%) 390 (55.32%) 44 (52.38%) 25 (39.68%) 75 (69.44%) 85 (64.39%) 161 (52.83%)
 Female, n (%) 315 (44.68%) 40 (47.62%) 38 (60.32%) 33 (30.56%) 47 (35.61%) 157 (47.17%)
BMI (kg/m2) 22.32 ± 4.45 21.88 ± 4.08 22.43 ± 4.58 22.04 ± 4.56 22.19 ± 3.88 22.56 ± 4.70
Etiology of CKD, n (%)
 Glomerulonephritis 481 (68.23%) 65 (77.38%) 39 (61.90%) 79 (73.15%) 83 (62.88%) 215 (67.61%)
 Diabetic nephropathy 104 (14.75%) 9 (10.71%) 13 (20.63%) 12 (11.11%) 25 (18.94%) 45 (14.15%)
 Hypertensive nephropathy 57 (8.09%) 4 (4.76%) 6 (9.52%) 9 (8.33%) 13 (9.85%) 25 (7.86%)
 Lupus nephritis 14 (1.99%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.59%) 1 (0.93%) 5 (3.79%) 7 (2.20%)
 Polycystic kidney disease 20 (2.84%) 3 (3.57%) 1 (1.59%) 3 (2.78%) 1 (0.76%) 12 (3.77%)
 Others 29 (4.11%) 3 (3.57%) 3 (4.76%) 4 (3.70%) 5 (3.79%) 14 (4.40%)
Medications, n (%)
 ACEI or ARB 294 (41.70%) 49 (58.33%) 16 (25.40%) 0 (0%) 51 (38.64%) 178 (55.97%)
 Diuretics 88 (12.48%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 28 (25.93%) 24 (18.18%) 36 (11.32%)
 CCB 407 (57.73%) 21 (25%) 21 (25%) 64 (59.26%) 92 (69.70%) 209 (65.72%)
 β-blocker 285 (40.43%) 13 (15.48%) 16 (25.40%) 43 (39.81%) 64 (48.48%) 149 (46.86%)
 α-blocker 18 (2.55%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (1.85%) 5 (3.79%) 11 (3.46%)
 Digoxin 14 (1.99%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 14 (4.40%)
 Warfarin 26 (3.69%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 12 (11.11%) 0 (0%) 14 (4.40%)
 Prostacyclin 247 (35.04%) 0 (0%) 12 (19.05%) 76 (70.37%) 82 (62.12%) 77 (24.21%)
Laboratory tests
 Hb (g/L) 94.19 ± 23.46 103.66 ± 20.54 100.68 ± 21.29 103.05 ± 26.33 94.64 ± 23.56 87.22 ± 21.26
 ALB (g/L) 34.75 ± 5.68 35.60 ± 5.07 34.39 ± 5.26 34.80 ± 5.59 34.27 ± 5.25 34.78 ± 6.11
 TC (mmol/L) 4.37 ± 1.16 4.41 ± 0.98 4.50 ± 1.28 4.44 ± 1.30 4.12 ± 0.93 4.41 ± 1.21
 TG (mmol/L) 1.68 ± 1.10 1.52 ± 0.82 1.53 ± 0.80 1.66 ± 1.03 1.82 ± 1.26 1.70 ± 1.17
 Proteinuria (mg/24 h) 1783.13 ± 1233.31 1387.64 ± 1016.40 1586.44 ± 1122.68 1543.20 ± 1207.24 1699.50 ± 1158.92 2042.75 ± 1294.12
 Ca (mmol/L) 2.17 ± 0.19 2.20 ± 0.11 2.16 ± 0.11 2.27 ± 0.12 2.22 ± 0.14 2.22 ± 0.24
 P (mmol/L) 1.41 ± 0.52 0.99 ± 0.12 1.04 ± 0.13 1.11 ± 0.13 1.25 ± 0.23 1.76 ± 0.57
 PTH (pg/ml) 326.20 ± 180.71 271.98 ± 123.31 334.10 ± 182.36 290.55 ± 153.09 320.75 ± 146.67 353.33 ± 207.99
 Ferritin (ng/ml) 350.27 ± 192.52 319.08 ± 95.40 331.24 ± 92.25 366.82 ± 258.77 354.95 ± 132.96 354.72 ± 218.88
 SI (μmol/L) 12.38 ± 5.62 12.74 ± 4.88 12.36 ± 5.62 12.49 ± 5.36 11.60 ± 5.69 12.58 ± 5.86
 C3 (g/L) 0.96 ± 0.29 1.01 ± 0.32 0.96 ± 0.29 0.98 ± 0.31 0.93 ± 0.31 0.94 ± 0.27
Hemodynamics
 SBP (mmHg) 141.24 ± 14.14 137.43 ± 12.18 138.30 ± 9.89 138.45 ± 16.09 142.33 ± 14.78 143.32 ± 13.97
 DBP (mmHg) 85.44 ± 9.80 82.41 ± 9.21 84.48 ± 8.34 84.43 ± 10.35 84.28 ± 10.08 87.26 ± 9.62
 PASP (mmHg) 39.39 ± 13.86 32.40 ± 9.35 38.38 ± 14.66 38.04 ± 13.69 38.86 ± 13.78 42.13 ± 14.09
 LVEF (%) 62.05 ± 10.04 65.08 ± 10.02 64.81 ± 6.49 63.92 ± 8.46 61.45 ± 9.88 60.31 ± 10.79
  1. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CKD chronic kidney disease, BMI body mass index, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CCB calcium channel blocker, Hb hemoglobin, ALB albumin, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, PTH parathyroid hormone, SI serum iron, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, PASP pulmonary artery systolic pressure, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction. Results are reported as means ± standard deviation