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Table 2 Baseline demographic, clinical, laboratory, and hemodynamic characteristics of the study population by PASP

From: Epidemiology and risk factors in CKD patients with pulmonary hypertension: a retrospective study

  All PASP ≤35 mmHg 35 mmHg < PASP ≤45 mmHg 45 mmHg < PASP ≤60 mmHg PASP > 60 mmHg
No. of patients 705 371 156 106 72
Age (years) 48.12 ± 15.02 48.43 ± 15.50 45.50 ± 14.08 49.83 ± 15.81 49.71 ± 12.63
Gender
 Male, n (%) 400 231 (57.75%) 73 (18.25%) 46 (11.50%) 40 (10.00%)
 Female, n (%) 305 140 (45.90%) 83 (27.21%)a 60 (19.67%)a 32 (10.49%)
BMI (kg/m2) 22.32 ± 4.45 21.55 ± 3.96 22.98 ± 4.94** 22.47 ± 4.39 24.65 ± 4.85***
Etiology of CKD, n (%)
 Glomerulonephritis 481 268 (55.72%) 100 (20.79%) 69 (14.35%) 44 (9.15%)
 Diabetic nephropathy 104 45 (43.27%) 31 (29.81%)b 17 (16.35%) 11 (10.58%)
 Hypertensive nephropathy 57 30 (52.36%) 13 (22.81%) 9 (15.79%) 5 (8.77%)
 Lupus nephritis 14 4 (28.57%) 0 (0%) 3 (21.43%) 7 (50.00%)b
 Polycystic kidney disease 20 11 (55.00%) 6 (30.00%) 3 (15.00%) 0 (0%)
 Others 29 13 (44.83%) 6 (20.69%) 5 (17.24%) 5 (17.24%)
No. of anti-hypertensives
 0 anti-hypertensive 72 41 (56.94%) 14 (19.44%) 9 (12.50%) 8 (11.11%)
 1 anti-hypertensives 180 107 (59.44%) 28 (15.56%) 29 (16.11%) 16 (8.89%)
 2 anti-hypertensives 230 132 (57.39%) 56 (24.35%) 22 (9.57%) 20 (8.70%)
 3 anti-hypertensives 155 63 (40.65%) 39 (25.16%) 37 (23.87%) 16 (10.32%)
  ≥ 4 anti-hypertensives 68 28 (41.18%) 19 (27.94%) 9 (13.24%) 12 (17.65%)
Other medications, n (%)
 Digoxin 14 5 (35.71%) 0 (0%) 5 (35.71%) 4 (28.57%)
 Warfarin 26 5 (19.23%) 12 (46.15%) 5 (19.23%) 4 (15.38%)
 Prostacyclins 247 120 (48.58%) 55 (22.27%) 37 (14.98%) 35 (14.17%)
Laboratory tests
 Hb (g/L) 94.19 ± 23.46 107.45 ± 19.82 80.37 ± 19.50*** 77.91 ± 19.40*** 81.37 ± 12.77***
 ALB (g/L) 34.75 ± 5.68 35.44 ± 5.11 34.50 ± 5.98 33.15 ± 6.92* 34.06 ± 5.31
 TC (mmol/L) 4.37 ± 1.16 4.28 ± 0.99 4.43 ± 1.58 4.57 ± 1.10 4.38 ± 0.93
 TG (mmol/L) 1.68 ± 1.10 1.52 ± 0.81 1.90 ± 1.50* 1.61 ± 0.95 2.13 ± 1.43**
 Proteinuria (mg/24 h) 1783.13 ± 1233.31 1176.14 ± 971.05 2132.18 ± 1051.07*** 2737.32 ± 1372.09*** 2749.72 ± 687.34***
 Ca (mmol/L) 2.17 ± 0.19 2.18 ± 0.18 2.17 ± 0.20 2.14 ± 0.20 2.21 ± 0.20
 P (mmol/L) 1.41 ± 0.52 1.31 ± 0.46 1.51 ± 0.53*** 1.57 ± 0.62*** 1.43 ± 0.55
 PTH (pg/ml) 326.20 ± 180.71 266.02 ± 148.51 358.54 ± 163.65*** 353.40 ± 154.59*** 526.15 ± 228.42***
 Ferritin (ng/ml) 350.27 ± 192.52 354.34 ± 224.21 301.23 ± 142.90** 370.56 ± 146.29 405.68 ± 142.19
 SI (μmol/L) 12.38 ± 5.62 12.46 ± 5.81 13.05 ± 6.51 11.50 ± 4.60 11.83 ± 3.35
 C3 (g/L) 0.96 ± 0.29 1.01 ± 0.33 0.92 ± 0.26** 0.84 ± 0.22*** 0.95 ± 0.21
Hemodynamics
 SBP (mmHg) 141.24 ± 14.14 138.46 ± 13.19 143.71 ± 16.22** 145.53 ± 14.98*** 143.89 ± 9.00***
 DBP (mmHg) 85.44 ± 9.80 83.59 ± 9.45 87.28 ± 10.89** 88.49 ± 10.08*** 86.54 ± 6.08**
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 33.55 ± 32.51 43.71 ± 36.13 22.84 ± 25.27*** 18.48 ± 15.57*** 26.57 ± 27.29***
 LVEF (%) 62.05 ± 10.04 63.50 ± 9.33 66.13 ± 7.19** 56.23 ± 11.05*** 54.26 ± 9.66***
No. of dialysis patients (%) 331 136 (36.66%) 81 (51.92%) 66 (62.26%) 48 (66.67%)
Time of dialysis (months) 16.89 ± 14.16 16.58 ± 14.01 15.54 ± 11.42*** 16.48 ± 14.46*** 20.29 ± 17.64***
  1. PASP pulmonary artery systolic pressure, CKD chronic kidney disease, BMI body mass index, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CCB calcium channel blocker, Hb hemoglobin, ALB albumin, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, PTH parathyroid hormone, SI serum iron, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction. Results are reported as means ± standard deviation. Compared with non-PH group, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001; Compared with male group, ap < 0.05; Compared with glomerulonephritis group, bp < 0.05