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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of adults with index eGFR 30 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 with annual measurements of kidney function, overall and stratified by those who did or did not experience fast progression of CKD

From: Contemporary rates and predictors of fast progression of chronic kidney disease in adults with and without diabetes mellitus

Characteristic Not Fast CKD Progression Fast CKD Progression D-Valuea
(N = 29,646) (N = 6549)
Age, yr
 Mean (SD) 73.0 (10.0) 73.3 (10.8) 0.03
Gender, n (%)    0.00
 Women 16,306 (55.0) 3598 (54.9)  
 Men 13,340 (45.0) 2951 (45.1)  
Race/Ethnicity, n (%)
 White/European 21,651 (73.0) 4605 (70.3) 0.05
 Black/African American 3185 (10.7) 790 (12.1) 0.05
 Asian/Pacific Islander 3442 (11.6) 810 (12.4) 0.05
 Native American 90 (0.3) 28 (0.4) 0.05
 Other 135 (0.5) 45 (0.7) 0.05
 Unknown 1143 (3.9) 271 (4.1) 0.05
Known Hispanic ethnicity, n (%) 2816 (9.5) 754 (11.5) 0.07
Smoking status, n (%)    0.08
 Current or former smoker 13,382 (45.1) 3215 (49.1)  
 Non-smoker 16,264 (54.9) 3334 (50.9)  
Cardiovascular history, n (%)
 Acute myocardial infarction 664 (2.2) 222 (3.4) 0.26
 Heart failure 2675 (9.0) 1001 (15.3) 0.36
 Hospitalized ischemic stroke 344 (1.2) 105 (1.6) 0.20
 Transient ischemic attack 483 (1.6) 128 (2.0) 0.11
 Peripheral artery disease 333 (1.1) 103 (1.6) 0.21
 Mitral and/or aortic valvular disease 1973 (6.7) 479 (7.3) 0.06
 Atrial fibrillation and/or flutter 3086 (10.4) 830 (12.7) 0.13
Cardiac procedure history, n (%)
 Coronary artery bypass graft surgery 422 (1.4) 112 (1.7) 0.11
 Percutaneous coronary intervention 820 (2.8) 233 (3.6) 0.16
 Pacemaker 310 (1.0) 106 (1.6) 0.27
Medical history, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 10,139 (34.2) 3035 (46.3) 0.31
 Proteinuria 3032 (10.2) 1458 (22.3) 0.56
 Hypertension 24,838 (83.8) 5772 (88.1) 0.22
 Diagnosed dementia 685 (2.3) 187 (2.9) 0.13
 Diagnosed depression 3899 (13.2) 903 (13.8) 0.03
 Dyslipidemia 22,157 (74.7) 5111 (78.0) 0.11
 Chronic liver disease 580 (2.0) 156 (2.4) 0.12
 Chronic lung disease 6299 (21.2) 1546 (23.6) 0.08
 Hyperthyroidism 865 (2.9) 185 (2.8) 0.02
 Hypothyroidism 5555 (18.7) 1216 (18.6) 0.01
 Systemic cancer 2042 (6.9) 451 (6.9) 0.00
 Extracranial hemorrhage 553 (1.9) 157 (2.4) 0.16
Body mass index, kg/m2, n (%)    0.03
 < 18.5 247 (0.8) 66 (1.0)  
 18.5–24.9 6664 (22.5) 1418 (21.7)  
 25.0–29.9 10,290 (34.7) 2180 (33.3)  
 30.0–39.9 9038 (30.5) 2067 (31.6)  
 ≥ 40.0 1497 (5.0) 448 (6.8)  
 Unknown 1910 (6.4) 370 (5.6)  
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg
 Mean (SD) 129.0 (16.5) 132.9 (18.7) 0.23
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg
 Mean (SD) 70.9 (10.4) 71.1 (11.1) 0.02
Baseline medication use, n (%)
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor 13,634 (46.0) 3252 (49.7) 0.09
 Angiotensin II receptor blocker 4335 (14.6) 1216 (18.6) 0.17
 Diuretic 17,136 (57.8) 3997 (61.0) 0.08
  Loop 4470 (15.1) 1502 (22.9) 0.31
  Thiazide 13,377 (45.1) 2739 (41.8) 0.08
 β-blocker 15,256 (51.5) 3759 (57.4) 0.15
 Calcium channel blocker 7607 (25.7) 2110 (32.2) 0.19
 Alpha-blocker 3927 (13.2) 1023 (15.6) 0.12
 Aldosterone receptor antagonist 691 (2.3) 191 (2.9) 0.14
 Isosorbide dinitrate + hydralazine 66 (0.2) 48 (0.7) 0.73
 Hydralazine 903 (3.0) 374 (5.7) 0.40
 Antiarrhythmic 704 (2.4) 189 (2.9) 0.12
 Nitrate 1478 (5.0) 479 (7.3) 0.25
 Digoxin 1072 (3.6) 303 (4.6) 0.16
 Statin 18,442 (62.2) 4342 (66.3) 0.11
 Other lipid-lowering agent 1880 (6.3) 505 (7.7) 0.13
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug 4028 (13.6) 803 (12.3) 0.07
 Antiplatelet agent 1535 (5.2) 422 (6.4) 0.14
 Diabetic therapy 7945 (26.8) 2541 (38.8) 0.33
 Erythropoietin 160 (0.5) 81 (1.2) 0.51
Baseline laboratory values
 CKD-EPI eGFR, ml/min/1.73m2    0.07
  45–59 20,263 (68.3) 4675 (71.4)  
  30–44 9383 (31.7) 1874 (28.6)  
 Hemoglobin, g/dL, n (%)    0.08
  ≥ 13.0 15,328 (51.7) 2706 (41.3)  
  12.0–12.9 5160 (17.4) 1326 (20.2)  
  11.0–11.9 2656 (9.0) 937 (14.3)  
  10.0–10.9 994 (3.4) 383 (5.8)  
  9.0–9.9 315 (1.1) 117 (1.8)  
  < 9.0 125 (0.4) 42 (0.6)  
  Unknown 5068 (17.1) 1038 (15.8)  
 Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, mg/dL
  Mean (SD) 97.4 (33.1) 94.0 (33.6) 0.10
  Median (IQR) 92.0 (75.0–116.0) 88.0 (71.0–111.0)  
  Range 12.0–531.0 19.0–339.0  
  Missing, n (%) 2997 (10.1) 659 (10.1)  
 High density lipoprotein cholesterol, mg/dL
  Mean (SD) 49.7 (14.2) 48.3 (13.8) 0.10
  Median (IQR) 47.0 (40.0–57.0) 46.0 (39.0–55.0)  
  Range 10.0–153.0 4.0–178.0  
  Missing, n (%) 3560 (12.0) 807 (12.3)  
 Serum potassium, mmol/L
  Mean (SD) 4.5 (0.5) 4.5 (0.5) 0.03
  Median (IQR) 4.5 (4.2–4.8) 4.5 (4.2–4.8)  
  Range 2.1–6.7 2.6–7.3  
  Missing, n (%) 2761 (9.3) 376.7)  
  1. a Represents the Cohen’s D-value, calculated by dividing the difference of the group means by the standard deviation, with a D-value ≥ 0.10 considered a meaningful difference