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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants

From: Determinants of hyperuricemia in non-dialysed chronic kidney disease patients in three hospitals in Cameroon

Variable Total (N = 103)
Age (years), mean ± SD 55.78 ± 12.58
Age Strata, n (%)
 20–29 years 2 (1.9)
 30–39 years 9 (8.7)
 40–49 years 19 (18.4)
 50–59 years 33 (32.0)
 60–69 years 23 (22.3)
  > 70 years 17 (16.5)
Male gender, n (%) 61 (59.2)
Duration of CKD diagnosis (months), mean ± SD 14.67 ± 18.05
CKD stage, n (%)
 Stage 1/G1 0 (0.0)
 Stage 2/G2 4 (3.9)
 Stage 3a/G3a 8 (7.8)
 Stage 3b/G3b 15 (14.6)
 Stage 4/G4 50 (48.5)
 Stage 5/G5 26 (25.2)
Type of renal involvement, n (%)
 Glomerular 62 (60.2)
 Tubulo-interstitial 12 (11.7)
 Vascular 20 (19.4)
 Mixed 9 (8.7)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension 90 (87.4)
 Diabetes 35 (34.0)
 Gout 22 (21.4)
 HIV 13 (12.6)
Dietary regimen, n (%)
 None 32 (31.1)
 Low protein 46 (55.3)
 Low-carb 52 (50.5)
 Low fat 29 (28.2)
Medications, n (%)
aUrate lowering therapy 42 (40.8)
bLoop diuretics 32 (31.1)
cThiazide diuretics 1 (1.0)
dARB 5 (4.9)
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg), mean ± SD 142.3 ± 30.3
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg), mean ± SD 88.3 ± 21.3
Weight (kg), median (IQR) 75.00 (18.40)
Height (m), median (IQR) 1.66 (0.10)
BMI (kg/m2), median (IQR) 26.30 (6.04)
Haemoglobin (g/dl), mean ± SD 10.27 ± 1.76
Total Cholesterol (mmol/l), mean ± SD 2.06 ± 0.56
HDL-c (mmol/l), mean ± SD 0.55 ± 0.19
LDL-c (mmol/l), mean ± SD 1.25 ± 0.42
Tryglycerides (mmol/l), median (IQR) 1.04 (0.72)
Plasma creat (mg/dl), median (IQR) 3.65 (1.55)
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73m2), median (IQR) 17.00 (11.00)
Spot urine protein (mg/dl), median (IQR) 1.07 (1.06)
Spot urine creat (mg/dl), median (IQR) 1.47 (1.14)
Spot urine PCR (mg/g), median (IQR) 803.0 (1120.0)
Serum uric acid (mg/l), mean ± SD 76.19 ± 20.25
Hyperuricemia, n (%) 69 (67.0)
  1. CKD Chronic kidney disease, HIV Human immuno-deficiency virus, ARB Angiotensin receptor blockers, BMI Body mass index, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Creat Creatinine, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, PCR Protein-to-creatinine ratio, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range
  2. aAllopurinol
  3. bFurosemide
  4. cHydrochlorothiazide
  5. dLosartan