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Table 2 Factors associated with serum uric acid and hyperuricemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

From: Determinants of hyperuricemia in non-dialysed chronic kidney disease patients in three hospitals in Cameroon

Variable Serum uric acid Hyperuricemia
Bivariate analysis aMultivariate analysis Bivariate analysis aMultivariate analysis
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) cOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Age 0.54 (0.25–0.84) 0.49 (0.24–0.74) 1.05 (1.02–1.09) 1.08 (1.03–1.13)
Male gender 0.15 (− 1.79–14.41) 1.96 (− 4.41–8.34) 0.85 (0.37–1.98) 0.58 (0.17–1.91)
Duration of CKD diagnosis (months) − 0.01 (− 0.23–0.22) −0.11 (− 0.26–0.05) 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.99 (0.96–1.03)
GFR (ml/min per 1.73m2) −0.67 (− 0.91 - -0.43) −0.36 (− 0.57 - -0.16) 0.93 (0.89–0.96) 0.94 (0.90–0.98)
CKD stage
 Stage 2/G2 − 15.08 (− 34.64–4.48) 2.68 (− 17.85–12.49)
 Stage 3a/G3a 3.61 (− 11.61–18.83) 10.79 (− 1.16–22.75) 1.2 (0.20–7.18) 5.44 (0.45–65.66)
 Stage 3b/G3b Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Stage 4/G4 20.55 (10.32–30.76) 17.49 (9.52–25.45) 9.11 (2.01–33.21) 24.66 (3.63–167.63)
 Stage 5/G5 20.82 (9.55–32.09) 13.28 (4.41–22.16) 6.67 (1.63–27.27) 7.73 (1.06–56.30)
Spot urine PCR (mg/g) 3.76 (1.12–6.40) 3.06 (1.09–5.04) 1.52 (1.01–2.30) 1.83 (1.07–3.12)
Proteinuria
 No or Mild/A1 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Moderate/A2 8.81 (−3.08–20.70) 5.41 (− 5.26–16.07) 1.99 (0.57–6.90) 1.65 (0.39–6.90)
 Severe/A3 16.51 (6.56–26.46) 13.94 (4.92–22.95) 4.71 (1.59–13.99) 6.27 (1.66–23.60)
Type of renal involvement
 Glomerular Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Tubulointerstitial −3.31 (− 15.63–9.02) 5.76 (− 3.47–14.99) 0.77 (0.22–2.72) 1.71 (0.30–9.67)
 Vascular 7.36 (− 2.69–17.41) 4.39 (− 2.97–11.74) 1.10 (0.25–4.83) 2.25 (0.43–11.71)
 Mixed −8.92 (− 22.86–5.02) −5.67 (− 15.70–4.36) 2.20 (0.65–7. 40) 1.57 (0.24–10.19)
No Hypertension −17.83 (− 27.17 - -8.48) −18.37 (− 28.67 - -8.06) 0.06 (0.01–0.30) 0.09 (0.02–0.46)
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 0.25 (0.09–0.40) 0.14 (0.02–0.25) 1.03 (1.01–1.06) 1.04 (1.01–1.07)
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 0.58 (0.14–1.01) 0.35 (0.03–0.66) 1.05 (1.00–1.11) 1.06 (0.99–1.13)
Diabetes 9.01 (0.87–17.14) 4.34 (− 2.72–11.40) 2.09 (0.83–5.29) 1.40 (0.47–4.18)
HIV −8.70 (− 20.45–3.04) −5.15 (− 13.87–3.57) 0.76 (0.23–2.53) 1.37 (0.27–6.99)
Low protein diet −8.31 (− 16.07 - -0.55) −1.45 (− 7.70–4.80) 0.42 (0.18–0.98) 0.80 (0.29–2.21)
Low-Carb diet 8.36 (0.64–16.07) −0.67 (− 7.18–5.84) 2.10 (0.91–4.86) 1.09 (0.41–2.91)
Low fat diet 6.20 (− 2.47–14.88) −0.92 (− 7.16–5.32) 3.09 (1.06–9.02) 1.73 (0.44–6.81)
bUrate lowering therapy 22.71 (16.00–29-42) 18.84 (12.98–24.71) 6.71 (2.32–19.37) 4.99 (1.54–16.16)
cLoop diuretics 11.94 (3.75–20.13) 6.62 (0.25–12.99) 3.73 (1.29–10.82) 3.39 (1.01–11.42)
dThiazide diuretics 4.82 (− 35.34–44.98) −6.43 (− 34.72–21.86)
eARB −1.46 (− 19.78–16.87) 1.54 (11.69–14.77) 0.73 (0.12–4.57) 2.38 (0.08–69.14)
BMI (kg/m2) 1.06 (0.07–2.05) 0.49 (−0.35–1.32) 1.12 (0.99–1.26) 1.04 (0.89–1.21)
BMI class
 Normal Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Overweight 4.99 (− 3.61–13.59) 5.52 (−1.38–12.41) 1.38 (0.57–3.35) 1.59 (0.56–4.53)
 Obesity 11.29 (0.57–22.02) 4.34 (−4.48–13.16) 6.65 (1.36–32.61) 6.12 (1.15–32.55)
Haemoglobin (g/dl) −2.82 (− 5.00 - -0.63) −1.61 (− 3.26–0.04) 0.77 (0.61–0.99) 0.86 (0.64–1.15)
No anaemia − 27.42 (− 39.02 - -15.82) −18.08 (− 27.55 - -8.61) 0.04 (0.00–0.29) 0.04 (0.00–0.46)
Total Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.85 (− 8.33–18.0) 9.24 (− 2.54–21.02) 1.64 (0.38–7.40) 1.05 (0.11–9.77)
HDL-c (mmol/l) − 29.28 (− 67.02–8.46) −4.16 (− 33.53–25.22) 0.11 (0.01–7.30) 0.01 (0.00–30.34)
LDL-c (mmol/l) 4.81 (−12.63–22.25) −1.06 (− 14.88–12.76) 1.81 (0.24–13.82) 0.38 (0.21–6.91)
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 5.30 (−7.67–18.27) 3.76 (− 5.59–13.11) 1.34 (0.32–5.67) 1.40 (0.96–12.34)
Dyslipidaemia 10.62 (−4.60–25.85) 11.23 (− 1.58–24.03) 4.25 (0.82–22.13) 2.13 (0.13–34.26)
  1. cOR Crude odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, PCR Protein-to-creatinine ratio, CKD Chronic kidney disease, HIV Human immuno-deficiency virus, ARB Angiotensin receptor blockers, BMI Body mass index. HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. aMultivariate analysis adjusted for patient’s age, eGFR, spot urine PCR, systolic blood pressure, ULT, loop diuretics and haemoglobin level
  3. bAllopurinol
  4. cFurosemide
  5. dHydrochlorothiazide
  6. eLosartan