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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study patients

From: Echocardiographic parameters and renal outcomes in patients with preserved renal function, and mild- moderate CKD

Characteristic eGFR 90–120 eGFR 60–89 eGFR 30–59
  N Result N Result N Result
Patients   9864 (34%)   12,731 (43%)   6624 (23%)
Outpatients   4558 (46%)   6124 (48%)   2448 (37%)
Age (years) 9864 50 ± 14 12,731 64 ± 13 6624 72 ± 12
Male sex 9864 4797 (49%) 12,731 6608 (52%) 6624 3281 (50%)
African American 9864 1168 (12%) 12,731 949 (8%) 6624 523 (8%)
Hypertension 9864 3480 (35%) 12,731 6884 (54%) 6624 4091 (62%)
Diabetes mellitus 9864 1308 (13%) 12,731 2307 (18%) 6624 1902 (29%)
CAD 9864 3087 (31%) 12,731 5984 (47%) 6624 3762 (57%)
CHF 9864 1733 (18%) 12,731 3369 (27%) 6624 3081 (47%)
COPD 9864 286 (3%) 12,731 454 (4%) 6624 319 (5%)
PE 9864 520 (5%) 12,731 452 (4%) 6624 257 (4%)
ACEI 8953 1614 (18%) 11,642 3278 (28%) 6175 2222 (36%)
ARB 8953 330 (4%) 11,642 928 (8%) 6175 810 (13%)
β-blocker 8953 3618 (40%) 11,642 6190 (53%) 6175 3902 (63%)
Statin 8953 2298 (26%) 11,642 5077 (44%) 6175 3317 (54%)
Aspirin 8953 2993 (33%) 11,642 5287 (45%) 6175 3373 (55%)
Clopidogrel 8953 659 (7%) 11,642 1325 (11%) 6175 844 (14%)
Warfarin 8953 940 (11%) 11,642 1852 (16%) 6175 1168 (19%)
Creatinine (μmol/l) 9864 65 (57–74) 12,731 82 (73–94) 6624 115 (100–134)
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 9864 104 ± 12 12,731 76 ± 9 6624 47 ± 8
Albuminuria stage:
 - A1 348 213 (61%) 544 333 (61%) 472 188 (40%)
 - A2 348 100 (29%) 544 159 (29%) 472 191 (41%)
 - A3 348 35 (10%) 544 52 (10%) 472 93 (20%)
Hb (g/l) 7115 123 ± 23 8458 127 ± 21 4301 118 ± 21
Albumin (g/l) 7331 38 ± 7 9261 39 ± 6 5183 37 ± 6
K+ (mmol/l) 9522 4.0 ± 0.4 12,312 4.0 ± 0.4 6448 4.1 ± 0.5
Calcium (mmol/l) 8491 2.20 ± 0.18 10,961 2.23 ± 0.15 5796 2.23 ± 0.18
Phos (mmol/l) 3974 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 4188 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 2917 1.1 (0.9–1.2)
BNP (ng/L) 906 90 (27–265) 1610 188 (62–480) 1519 349 (137–745)
  1. Results are presented as number (percentage), mean ± standard deviation, or median (interquartile range). eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; N, number of patients with available data; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive lung disease; PE, pulmonary embolism (acute or chronic); ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; A1: albuminuria < 30 mg/g of creatinine; A2: albuminuria 30–300 mg/g of creatinine; A3: albuminuria > 300 mg/g of creatinine; Hb, hemoglobin; K+, potassium; Phos, phosphorus; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide. Percentages are within eGFR group and exclude missing values. The three eGFR groups were statistically different (P value for trend < 0.001 for all parameters except sex)