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Table 3 Adjusted associations of echocardiographic parameters with composite renal outcomes and mortality

From: Echocardiographic parameters and renal outcomes in patients with preserved renal function, and mild- moderate CKD

  Parameter Number of renal events Adjusted HR (95% CI) - Renal outcomes p Number of deaths Adjusted HR (95% CI) - Mortality p
LVEF Group 1 vs. 4 67 vs. 649 1.18 (0.88–1.59) 0.26 423 vs. 5602 1.46 (1.31–1.63) < 0.001
Group 2 vs. 4 91 vs. 649 1.06 (0.82–1.36) 0.66 803 vs. 5602 1.27 (1.17–1.38) < 0.001
Group 3 vs. 4 160 vs. 649 1.05 (0.87–1.26) 0.64 1403 vs. 5602 1.09 (1.02–1.16) 0.007
LVd Quartile 2 vs. 1 178 vs. 208 0.77 (0.63–0.95) 0.02 1805 vs. 2211 0.83 (0.78–0.89) < 0.001
Quartile 3 vs. 1 211 vs. 208 0.97 (0.79–1.19) 0.78 1553 vs. 2211 0.80 (0.75–0.86) < 0.001
Quartile 4 vs. 1 292 vs. 208 1.02 (0.83–1.26) 0.83 1872 vs. 2211 0.84 (0.78–0.90) < 0.001
LVMi Quartile 2 vs. 1 42 vs. 56 0.72 (0.47–1.08) 0.11 450 vs. 458 0.93 (0.81–1.06) 0.29
Quartile 3 vs. 1 84 vs. 56 1.29 (0.90–1.84) 0.17 551 vs. 458 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 0.65
Quartile 4 vs. 1 63 vs. 56 0.81 (0.54–1.22) 0.31 626 vs. 458 0.95 (0.83–1.08) 0.41
PAP Quartile 2 vs. 1 167 vs. 115 1.31 (1.02–1.67) 0.03 1452 vs. 1090 1.11 (1.02–1.20) 0.02
Quartile 3 vs. 1 157 vs. 115 1.67 (1.30–2.15) < 0.001 1374 vs. 1090 1.26 (1.16–1.37) < 0.001
Quartile 4 vs. 1 223 vs. 115 2.26 (1.77–2.88) < 0.001 2062 vs. 1090 1.73 (1.60–1.88) < 0.001
RV systolic function Reduced vs. preserved 106 vs. 743 1.51 (1.21–1.88) < 0.001 881 vs. 6494 1.61 (1.49–1.73) < 0.001
RV hypertrophy Present vs. absent 26 vs. 417 1.33 (0.88–2.02) 0.18 204 vs. 3971 1.17 (1.01–1.35) 0.04
RV dilation Present vs. absent 149 vs. 740 1.59 (1.32–1.92) < 0.001 1189 vs. 6414 1.45 (1.36–1.55) < 0.001
  1. Adjusted Cox models. Hazard ratios are adjusted for age, sex, race, baseline eGFR, history of hypertension, diabetes, CAD, or CHF, and use of ACEI and/or ARB. Composite renal outcome includes doubling of serum creatinine or initiation of maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation. For LVEF, the following cutoffs were used: < 25%, 25–39%, 40–54%, ≥55%. HR, hazards ratio; CI, confidence interval; AA, African American race; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HTN, hypertension; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVd, left ventricular diastolic diameter; LVMi, left ventricular mass index (corrected for body surface area); PAP, pulmonary artery pressure; RV, right ventricle