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Table 5 Recommendation summary - diagnostic tests in newly diagnosed CKD

From: Diagnosis and management of non-dialysis chronic kidney disease in ambulatory care: a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines

  CEBAM ACP HAS KDIGO KHA-CARI BCMA UMHS VA-DoD NICE
2012 2013 2013 2013 2013 2014 2014 2014 2015
Diagnostic Tests in newly diagnosed CKD
clinical blood tests
 blood pressure         
 serum creatinine       
 (e)GFR (creatinine) *   
 blood count        
 serum urea    i      
 serum uric acid         
 serum albumin    i      
 serum electrolytes        
 serum glucose        
 lipids        
 serum cystatin C     i      
 eGFR (cystatin C)          i
 clearance     i      
 HbA1c          
 serum calcium     i     
 serum phosphate      i     
 serum phosphorus    i       
 serum PTH     i     
 serum 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D     i     
 iron      i     
 serum electrophoresis    i   i     
 ANA    i   i     
 anti-ENA      i     
 complement    i   i     
 Hepatitis-B serology      i     
 Hepatitis-C serology      i     
 HIV-serology      i     
 anti-GBM    i   i     
 ANCA    i   i     
 inulin          i
51Cr-EDTA          i
125I-iothalamate          i
 iohexol          i
urine tests
 albuminuria    i  
 proteinuria - reagent strips          - ***
 urine albumin-creatinin-ratio (ACR) ▪**     i    n
 urine protein-creatinin ratio (PCR) ▪**         i
 urine leucocytes         
 hematuria    (▪) ****      unclear*****
 urine microscopy         (−)
 24 h urine    i       
 urine electophoresis      i     
imaging
 renal ultrasound i     i i
 bladder ultrasound    i       
 MRI          
 CT          
 Angiography          
 renal artery doppler    i     i   
invasive
 kidney biopsy    i       
  1. ▪ recommendation, − negative recommendation, i: when indicated, *implicitly mentioned, **ACR or PCR, ***unless able to detect microalbuminuria, ****no explicitly formulated recommendation, but mentioned in background and a flow diagram, *****opportunistic detection
  2. ANA anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-ENA anti extractable nuclear antibodies, ANCA anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, anti-GBM anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, PTH parathyroid hormone
  3. American College of Physicians (ACP), Belgisch Centrum voor Evidence Based Medicine (CEBAM), British Columbia Medical Association (BCMA), Department of Veteran’s Affairs (VA-DoD), Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS), Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), Kidney Health Australia - Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (KHA-CARI), National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE), University of Michigan Health System (UMHS)