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Table 3 Comparing patient characteristics, principal diagnoses, causes of acute kidney injury, and indications for CRRT between study eras (excluding ECMO patients)

From: Pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy: have practice changes changed outcomes? A large single-center ten-year retrospective evaluation

Characteristic, n (%) 2004–2008 2009–2013 p-value
Patients (n) 129 144  
Age (n)
 0 to 1 yr. 24 (19%) 32 (22%)  
 1 to 3 yr 15 (12%) 19 (13%)  
 3 to 5 yr 7 (5%) 16 (11%)  
 5 to 10 yr 19 (15%) 19 (13%)  
 10 to 15 yr 28 (22%) 29 (20%)  
 15 to 21 yr 29 (22%) 26 (18%)  
 > 21 yr 7 (5%) 3 (2%)  
 Mean (SD) 9.2 (7.2) 7.7 (6.8) 0.08
Weight (n)
 0 to 10 kg 26 (20%) 38 (26%)  
 10 to 20 kg 29 (22%) 39 (27%)  
 20 to 50 kg 35 (27%) 33 (23%)  
  > 50 kg 39 (30%) 34 (24%)  
  Mean (SD) 36.0 (28.6) 31.3 (25.7) 0.15
Pre-existing end-stage renal disease 8 (6%) 5 (3%) 0.40
Sepsis on admission a 21 (20%) 13 (9%) 0.02
Immunocompromised 0.74
 Solid organ transplant 25 (20%) 33 (23%)  
 BMT 17 (13%) 14 (10%)  
 Not immunocompromised 61 (48%) 71 (49%)  
 Other immunocompromised 25 (20%) 26 (18%)  
% Fluid overload at CRRT Start b 17 (10, 26) 14 (6, 26) 0.19
Hospital Unit at CRRT Start 0.85
 Pediatric Intensive Care Unit 115 (91%) 126 (88%)  
 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 6 (5%) 8 (6%)  
 Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit 6 (5%) 9 (6%)  
 Bone Marrow Transplant Unit 0 1 (1%)  
ICU survival 68 (53%) 77 (53%) 0.90
28 day survival 79 (61%) 86 (60%) 0.81
60 day survival 68 (53%) 78 (54%) 0.90
Survival to discharge 60 (47%) 71 (49%) 0.72
Outpatient Renal Follow-up c 20 (33%) 38 (54%) 0.02
Diagnosis, n (%) 0.06
 Cardiac 13 (10%) 11 (8%)  
 Renal 9 (7%) 19 (13%)  
 Liver 19 (15%) 37 (26%)  
 Hematology/Oncology 18 (14%) 17 (12%)  
 Post-Bone Marrow Transplant 18 (14%) 15 (10%)  
 Pulmonary 11 (9%) 4 (3%)  
 Inborn error of metabolism 5 (4%) 10 (7%)  
 Sepsis 10 (8%) 5 (4%)  
 Neonates 10 (8%) 13 (9%)  
 Other d 16 (12%) 13 (9%)  
Cause of acute kidney injury a, e (n = 113) (n = 124) 0.04
 Multifactorial 50 (44%) 69 (56%)  
 Septic shock 24 (21%) 14 (11%)  
 Renal 10 (9%) 7 (6%)  
 Poor cardiac function 5 (5%) 6 (5%)  
 Hepatorenal syndrome 5 (4%) 8 (6%)  
 Nephrotoxic drugs 4 (3%) 5 (4%)  
 Abdominal compartment syndrome 1 (1%) 8 (6%)  
 Other f 16 (13%) 7 (6%)  
Indication for CRRT (n = 129) (n = 144) 0.41
 Fluid overload 74 (57%) 71 (49%)  
 Electrolyte management 7 (5%) 9 (6%)  
 Fluid overload and electrolyte management 28 (22%) 42 (29%)  
 Prevent fluid overload/provide nutrition 6 (5%) 3 (2%)  
 Other 14 (11%) 19 (13%)  
  Hemodynamic instability 3 (21%) 4 (21%)  
  Hyperammonemia 6 (43%) 12 (63%)  
  Ingestion 3 (21%) 3 (16%)  
  End-stage renal disease 2 (14%) 0  
  1. ap < 0.05 comparing 2004–2008 with 2009–2013
  2. bMedian with (interquartile range)
  3. cPatients who received CRRT for non-renal indications were excluded from this cohort (inborn errors of metabolism, ingestion)
  4. dIncludes rheumatology, gastroenterology, multiple organ, neurology, ingestions, hemorrhage, rhabdomyolysis, and non-accidental trauma
  5. ePatients with end-stage renal disease and non-acute kidney injury indications for CRRT (i.e. inborn error of metabolism) are excluded
  6. fIncludes vasculitis, microangiopathy, rhabdomyolysis, tumor lysis, obstruction, cardiac arrest, and unknown