Skip to main content

Table 2 Demographic, clinical and pathological features of patients with and without elevated serum TNF-α

From: Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with IgA nephropathy are closely associated with disease severity

Characteristics Subgroups P Value
TNF-α ≤ 8.1 pg/mL TNF-α > 8.1 pg/mL
Patients numbers 49 98  
Cytokines–biopsy time intervala (months) 25.93 (5.27–55.90) 28.55 (7.14–67.47) 0.63
Mean age (yr) 33 (28–41) 40 (29–47) 0.03
Male, n (%) 18 (36.7) 53 (54.1) 0.047
Systolic BP (mmHg) 120 (110–120) 120 (118–130) 0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 70 (60–80) 80 (70–80) 0.02
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 87 (78–93) 93 (87–97) 0.003
Urinary red blood cell (/μL) 34 (7–131) 22 (7–67) 0.13
Urinary protein to serum creatinine ratio (mg/g Cr) 486 (159–881) 756 (335–1596) 0.009
24-h urine protein excretion (g/24 h) 0.68 (0.30–1.09) 0.99 (0.40–1.70) 0.03
  < 0.3 12 (24.5%) 15 (15.3%) 0.009
 0.3–0.99 23 (46.9%) 36 (36.7%)  
 1.0–2.99 13 (26.5%) 33 (33.7%)  
  ≥ 3 1 (2.0%) 14 (14.3%)  
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.89 (0.72–1.07) 1.19 (0.92–1.52) < 0.0001
Cystatin C (mg/dL) 0.98 (0.79–1.12) 1.22 (1.00–2.00) < 0.0001
eGFR (mL/min•1.73m2)b 92.95 (73.96–118.78) 70.94 (52.26–91.57) < 0.0001
CKD Stagesc, n (%) < 0.0001
 1 30 (61.2) 27 (27.6)  
 2 15 (30.6) 34 (34.7)  
 3a 2 (4.1) 20 (20.4)  
 3b 1 (2.0) 7 (7.1)  
 4 1 (2.0) 4 (4.1)  
 5 0 (0.0) 6 (6.1)  
Oxford classificationd, n (%)
 M0/ M1 9 (18.4), 40 (81.6) 7 (7.1),91 (92.9) 0.04
 E0/E1 38 (77.6), 11 (22.4) 75 (76.5), 23 (23.5) 0.89
 S0/S1 13 (26.5), 36 (73.5) 11 (11.2), 87 (88.8) 0.02
 T0/T1/T2 22 (44.9), 19 (38.8), 8 (16.3) 23 (23.5), 46 (46.9), 29 (29.6) 0.008
 C0/C1/C2 22 (44.9), 23 (46.9), 4 (8.2) 44 (44.9), 43 (43.9), 11 (11.2) 0.79
Medical treatments, n (%)
 Untreated 10 (20.4) 25 (25.5) 0.49
 Corticosteroids 22 (44.9) 49 (50.0) 0.56
 Immunosuppressants 26 (53.1) 50 (51.0) 0.82
 ACE-Is/ARBs 34 (69.4) 65 (66.3) 0.71
  1. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or frequency in percent
  2. BP: blood pressure; 1 mmHg = 0.133Kpa; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; M: mesangial hypercellularity score < 0.5 (M0) or > 0.5 (M1); E: endocapillary hypercellularity absent (E0) or present (E1); S: segmental glomerulosclerosis absent (S0) or present (S1), presence or absence of podocyte hypertrophy/tip lesions in biopsy specimens with S1; T: tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis < 25% (T0), 26–50% (T1), or > 50% (T2); C: cellular/fibrocellular crescents absent (C0), present in at least 1 glomerulus (C1), in > 25% of glomeruli (C2)
  3. aTime interval between renal biopsy of patients with IgA nephropathy and sample collection
  4. beGFR was calculated according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation [19]
  5. cCKD stages 1–5 were divided by eGFR≥90 (G1), 60–89 (G2), 45–59 (G3a), 30–44 (G3b), 15–29 (G4), and < 15 (G5) mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively, according to the new KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) classification [20]
  6. dDetermined in accordance with the Oxford classification [5]