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Table 1 Potential treatment strategies for CKD via the up-regulation of klotho

From: The role of klotho in chronic kidney disease

Methods Mechanism
DNA demethylation Methylation of the klotho gene promoter reduces its activity by 30-40%
Histone deacetylation Hyperacetylation of histone in the klotho promoter down-regulates klotho expression
Drugs: PPAR-γ agonists, angiotensin II-type I receptor antagonists, statin, vitamin D active derivatives, intermedin These drugs can up-regulate klotho expression in vitro and in vivo
Delivery of klotho cDNA The klotho gene is transfected by viral carrier into target cells or animal models
Soluble klotho protein administration Recombinant klotho protein, which is the cleaved, full-length extracellular domain of membrane klotho, can be injected
  1. PPAR-γ: proliferator-activated receptor-gamma; statin: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors