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Table 2 Odds ratios of acute kidney injury according to the echocardiographic parameters

From: Systolic and diastolic dysfunction affects kidney outcomes in hospitalized patients

    Univariate Multivariatea
Parameters   Range OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Ejection fraction 4th quartile (n = 355) > 67.1 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  3rd quartile (n = 322) 63.1–67.1 1.07 (0.693–1.644) 0.768 1.08 (0.663–1.748) 0.765
  2nd quartile (n = 322) 58.5–63.0 1.08 (0.705–1.658) 0.720 1.27 (0.788–2.039) 0.328
  1st quartile (n = 318) < 58.5 1.60 (1.069–2.409) 0.023 1.74 (1.035–2.917) 0.037
E/e’ 1st quartile (n = 328) < 7.2 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  2nd quartile (n = 338) 7.2–9.2 1.12 (0.723–1.747) 0.604 1.15 (0.699–1.888) 0.583
  3rd quartile (n = 338) 9.3–11.9 1.04 (0.668–1.632) 0.850 1.06 (0.635–1.777) 0.817
  4th quartile (n = 323) > 11.9 1.90 (1.257–2.877) 0.002 1.63 (0.954–2.787) 0.074
Combined parameterb 1st group (n = 537) 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  2nd group (n = 466) 1.20 (0.836–1.719) 0.325 1.33 (0.895–1.977) 0.158
  3rd group (n = 138) 1.68 (1.026–2.743) 0.039 1.49 (0.852–2.612) 0.162
  4th group (n = 186) 2.27 (1.490–3.446) < 0.001 1.95 (1.192–3.201) 0.008
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, medications, laboratory findings, and other echocardiography findings
  2. bCombined parameter: 1st group, 1st to 3rd quartiles of E/e’ plus 3rd to 4th quartiles of ejection fraction; 2nd group, 1st to 3rd quartiles of E/e’ plus 1st to 2nd quartiles of ejection fraction; 3rd group, 4th quartile of E/e’ plus 3rd to 4th quartiles of ejection fraction; 4th group, 4th quartile of E/e’ plus 1st to 2nd quartiles of ejection fraction
  3. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, E early diastolic transmitral inflow velocity, A late diastolic transmitral flow velocity, e’ early diastolic mitral annular velocity