Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of patients grouped by the presence of albuminuria

From: Association of kidney disease measures with risk of renal function worsening in patients with type 1 diabetes

  All Normoalbuminuria Microalbuminuria Macroalbuminuria p
n = 4284 n = 3630 n = 557 n = 97
Male sex 2432 (56.8%) 2009 (55.3%) 363 (65.2%) 60 (61.9%) < 0.001
Age (years) 45 ± 14 44 ± 14 47 ± 14 48 ± 12 0.006
Known duration of diabetes (years) 18 ± 12 17 ± 12 20 ± 12 25 ± 11 < 0.001
BMI (Kg/m2) 24.5 ± 3.6 24.4 ± 3.5 25.0 ± 3.7 25.4 ± 3.8 0.003
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.84 ± 0.17 0.84 ± 0.16 0.86 ± 0.17 0.91 ± 0.21 < 0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 98 ± 17 99 ± 17 96 ± 16 91 ± 18 < 0.001
Serum uric acid (mg/dL) 3.9 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 1.4 4.2 ± 1.2 4.6 ± 1.2 < 0.001
Serum uric acid in the top quintile 447 (18.3%) 361 (17.0%) 65 (24.5%) 21 (40.4%) < 0.001
HbA1c (%) 7.8 ± 1.4 7.7 ± 1.4 8.0 ± 1.4 8.3 ± 1.4 < 0.001
HbA1c ≥ 7% 3071 (71.7%) 2555 (70.4%) 435 (78.1%) 81 (83.5%) 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 190 ± 36 189 ± 35 188 ± 38 205 ± 42 < 0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 87 ± 79 85 ± 81 97 ± 64 117 ± 70 < 0.001
Triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl 360 (8.4%) 275 (7.6%) 65 (11.7%) 20 (20.6%) < 0.001
HDL (mg/dL) 62 ± 18 62 ± 18 60 ± 19 61 ± 17 0.089
HDL < 40 M <50F mg/dL 501 (11.7%) 408 (11.2%) 80 (14.4%) 13 (13.4%) 0.208
LDL (mg/dL) 110 ± 31 110 ± 31 109 ± 32 121 ± 35 0.001
LDL ≥100 mg/dL 2638 (61.6%) 2244 (61.8%) 324 (58.2%) 70 (72.2%) 0.012
Systolic BP (mmHg) 126 ± 17 125 ± 17 130 ± 19 137 ± 22 < 0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 76 ± 9 75 ± 9 77 ± 9 80 ± 11 < 0.001
BP ≥ 140/85 mmHg 1310 (30.6%) 1039 (28.6%) 218 (39.1%) 53 (54.6%) < 0.001
Non-proliferative retinopathy 925 (21.6%) 744 (20.5%) 149 (26.8%) 32 (33.0%) 0.018
Proliferative retinopathy 321 (7.5%) 232 (6.4%) 72 (12.9%) 17 (17.5%) < 0.001
Smokers 602 (27.9%) 515 (27.3%) 72 (31.6%) 15 (38.5%) 0.119
Lipid-lowering treatment 861 (20.1%) 664 (18.3%) 162 (29.1%) 35 (36.1%) < 0.001
Treatment with statins 822 (19.2%) 638 (17.6%) 153 (27.5%) 31 (32.0%) < 0.001
Treatment with fibrates 19 (0.4%) 13 (0.4%) 4 (0.7%) 2 (2.1%) 0.045
Antihypertensive treatment 1102 (25.7%) 779 (21.5%) 249 (44.7%) 74 (76.3%) < 0.001
Treatment with ACE-Is/ARBs 1001 (23.4%) 699 (19.3%) 231 (41.5%) 71 (73.2%) < 0.001
Aspirin 425 (9.9%) 310 (8.5%) 93 (16.7%) 22 (22.7%) < 0.001
Insulin pump 304 (7.1%) 269 (7.4%) 29 (5.2%) 6 (6.2%) 0.563
  1. Mean ± SD or absolute frequency (percentage). BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, ACE-Is angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Patients’ baseline missing data: BMI in 176 (4.1%), serum uric acid in 1847 (43.1%), total cholesterol in 58 (1.4%), and smoking status in 2128 (49.7%). Serum uric acid the top gender-specific quintile: ≥4.0 mg/dL for females and ≥ 5.1 mg/dL for males. The p value refers to overall statistical significance of a mixed logistic regression model for categorical variables or mixed linear regression model for continuous variables with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria as covariate