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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of renal outcome within 4-year

From: Association of kidney disease measures with risk of renal function worsening in patients with type 1 diabetes

  eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 eGFR reduction > 30% than baseline eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or reduction > 30%
Odds Ratio (95%CI) p Odds Ratio (95%CI) p Odds Ratio (95%CI) p
Male sex 0.9 (0.65–1.24) 0.512 0.53 (0.39–0.71) < 0.001 0.59 (0.46–0.76) < 0.001
Age (by 10 years) 1.91 (1.65–2.22) < 0.001 1.38 (1.21–1.58) < 0.001 1.46 (1.30–1.63) < 0.001
Duration of diabetes (by 5 years) 0.95 (0.89–1.01) 0.107 1.01 (0.94–1.08) 0.819 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.500
BMI
 27–30 Kg/m2 0.93 (0.61–1.43) 0.754 1.02 (0.68–1.53) 0.924 1.09 (0.77–1.53) 0.636
 > 30 Kg/m2 1.16 (0.67–2.02) 0.599 0.92 (0.52–1.63) 0.770 1.15 (0.73–1.81) 0.543
Albuminuria
 Microalbuminuria 1.55 (1.00–2.40) 0.048 1.87 (1.27–2.76) 0.002 1.44 (1.01–2.06) 0.045
 Macroalbuminuria 4.30 (2.19–8.46) < 0.001 5.12 (2.81–9.35) < 0.001 4.09 (2.33–7.16) < 0.001
 eGFR below 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (by 5) 1.79 (1.64–1.96) < 0.001 0.87 (0.78–0.97) 0.014 1.46 (1.36–1.57) < 0.001
 HbA1c ≥ 7% 1.08 (0.73–1.60) 0.695 1.17 (0.82–1.66) 0.386 1.13 (0.83–1.53) 0.437
 Triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl 1.48 (0.88–2.50) 0.139 2.00 (1.28–3.12) 0.002 1.84 (1.24–2.74) 0.003
 HDL < 40 M <50F mg/dL 0.83 (0.50–1.39) 0.480 1.09 (0.71–1.68) 0.695 1.04 (0.71–1.52) 0.835
 LDL ≥100 mg/dL 1.08 (0.78–1.49) 0.651 0.83 (0.62–1.12) 0.229 0.93 (0.72–1.21) 0.596
 BP ≥ 140/85 mmHg 1.12 (0.81–1.55) 0.503 1.35 (0.98–1.85) 0.064 1.24 (0.95–1.61) 0.118
 Non-proliferative retinopathy 1.09 (0.75–1.58) 0.656 0.76 (0.52–1.10) 0.150 0.86 (0.63–1.17) 0.345
 Proliferative retinopathy 1.42 (0.87–2.31) 0.162 1.19 (0.74–1.93) 0.477 1.18 (0.78–1.78) 0.443
 Lipid-lowering treatment 0.87 (0.61–1.25) 0.464 0.85 (0.59–1.22) 0.370 0.87 (0.65–1.18) 0.373
 Antihypertensive treatment 1.31 (0.90–1.90) 0.155 1.23 (0.86–1.77) 0.256 1.21 (0.90–1.65) 0.211
 Aspirin 1.26 (0.83–1.91) 0.273 1.45 (0.95–2.23) 0.089 1.44 (1.01–2.05) 0.046
 Insulin pump 1.76 (0.91–3.39) 0.091 0.97 (0.54–1.74) 0.909 1.21 (0.73–1.99) 0.461
Separate models
 Serum uric acid (mg/dL) 1.07 (0.96–1.20) 0.211 1.04 (0.94–1.16) 0.460 1.04 (0.95–1.15) 0.393
 Serum uric acid in the top quintile 1.44 (0.90–2.31) 0.130 1.20 (0.75–1.89) 0.447 1.29 (0.88–1.90) 0.197
 Smokers 0.67 (0.37–1.22) 0.190 1.14 (0.71–1.83) 0.599 0.84 (0.54–1.29) 0.423
  1. Multivariate models were fitted including a missing indicator variable to indicate whether the BMI value is missing. Serum uric acid and smoking status evaluated in separate models that included patients with complete data