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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants, stratified by use of routine medical care

From: Low use of routine medical care among African Americans with high CKD risk: the Jackson Heart Study

Characteristic All participants
N = 3191
Age < 55 years
N = 1167 (36.6%)
Age ≥ 55 years
N = 2024 (63.4%)
Overall RMC use
N = 2491 (78.1%)
Low RMC use
N = 700 (21.9%)
P Value RMC use
N = 827
(33.2%)
Low RMC use
N = 340 (48.6%)
P Value RMC use
N = 1664 (66.8%)
Low RMC use
N = 360 (51.4%)
P Value
Sociodemographic
 Age, years, mean ± SD 58.9 (11.39) 59.85 (11.19) 55.55 (11.47) < 0.01 47 (5.93) 45.67 (6.31) < 0.01 66.23 (6.86) 64.89 (6.21) < 0.01
Sex     < 0.01    < 0.01    < 0.01
 Female 2049 (64.21) 1682 (67.52) 367 (52.43)   542 (65.54) 158 (46.47)   1140 (68.51) 209 (58.06)  
 Male 1142 (35.79) 809 (32.48) 333 (47.57)   285 (34.46) 182 (53.53)   524 (31.49) 151 (41.94)  
Education     0.09    < 0.01    < 0.01
  ≤ High school diploma 1389 (43.53) 1064 (42.71) 325 (46.43)   184 (22.25) 103 (30.29)   880 (52.88) 222 (61.67)  
  > High school diploma 1802 (56.47) 1427 (57.29) 375 (53.57)   643 (77.75) 237 (69.71)   784 (47.12) 138 (38.33)  
Income class categorya     0.10    0.37    0.05
 Lower/Lower-middle 1139 (35.69) 876 (35.17) 263 (37.57)   218 (26.36) 103 (30.29)   658 (39.54) 160 (44.44)  
 Upper-middle/Upper 1548 (48.51) 1204 (48.33) 344 (49.14)   472 (57.07) 186 (54.71)   732 (43.99) 158 (43.89)  
 Missing 504 (15.79) 411 (16.5) 93 (13.29)   137 (16.57) 51 (15)   274 (16.47) 42 (11.67)  
Comorbidities & Behaviors
BMI, kg/m2     0.65    0.47    0.99
  < 30 1316 (41.24) 1033 (41.47) 283 (40.43)   260 (31.44) 115 (33.82)   773 (46.45) 168 (46.67)  
  ≥ 30 1875 (58.76) 1458 (58.53) 417 (59.57)   567 (68.56) 225 (66.18)   891 (53.55) 192 (53.33)  
Tobacco use     < 0.01    < 0.01    < 0.01
 Never 2076 (65.06) 1674 (67.2) 402 (57.43)   604 (73.04) 209 (61.47)   1070 (64.3) 193 (53.61)  
 Former/current 1115 (34.94) 817 (32.8) 298 (42.57)   223 (26.96) 131 (38.53)   594 (35.7) 167 (46.39)  
Hypertension     < 0.01    0.01    0.03
 No 259 (8.12) 177 (7.11) 82 (11.71)   72 (8.71) 47 (13.82)   105 (6.31) 35 (9.72)  
 Yes 2932 (91.88) 2314 (92.89) 618 (88.29)   755 (91.29) 293 (86.18)   1559 (93.69) 325 (90.28)  
Hypertension controlb     < 0.01    0    0
 Controlled 1456 (49.66) 1215 (52.51) 241 (39)   392 (51.92) 103 (35.15)   823 (52.79) 138 (42.46)  
 Uncontrolled 1467 (50.03) 1092 (47.19) 375 (60.68)   363 (48.08) 188 (64.16)   729 (46.76) 187 (57.54)  
Diabetes     0.01    0.37    0.09
 No 2122 (66.5) 1626 (65.27) 496 (70.86)   600 (72.55) 256 (75.29)   1026 (61.66) 240 (66.67)  
 Yes 1069 (33.5) 865 (34.73) 204 (29.14)   227 (27.45) 84 (24.71)   638 (38.34) 120 (33.33)  
Diabetes controlc     0.66    0.4    0.8
 Controlled 475 (44.43) 381 (44.05) 94 (46.08)   83 (36.56) 37 (44.05)   298 (46.71) 57 (47.5)  
 Uncontrolled 556 (52.01) 453 (52.37) 103 (50.49)   133 (58.59) 46 (54.76)   320 (50.16) 57 (47.5)  
CVD history     0.17    0.09    0.5
 No 2741 (85.9) 2128 (85.43) 613 (87.57)   764 (92.38) 324 (95.29)   1364 (81.97) 289 (80.28)  
 Yes 450 (14.1) 363 (14.57) 87 (12.43)   63 (7.62) 16 (4.71)   300 (18.03) 71 (19.72)  
CKD     0.73    0.33    0.13
 No 1500 (47.01) 1178 (47.29) 322 (46)   467 (56.47) 183 (53.82)   711 (42.73) 139 (38.61)  
 Yes 591 (18.52) 463 (18.59) 128 (18.29)   113 (13.66) 58 (17.06)   350 (21.03) 70 (19.44)  
CKD stage d     0.01    0.35    0.46
 1 or 2 297 (50.25) 217 (46.87) 80 (62.5)   87 (76.99) 50 (86.21)   130 (37.14) 30 (42.86)  
 3 251 (42.47) 209 (45.14) 42 (32.81)   18 (15.93) 6 (10.34)   191 (54.57) 36 (51.43)  
 4 or 5 40 (6.77) 35 (7.56) 5 (3.91)   8 (7.08) 2 (3.45)   27 (7.71) 3 (4.29)  
CKD awareness d,e     0.57    0.1    0.59
 No 508 (85.96) 396 (85.53) 112 (87.5)   95 (84.07) 55 (94.83)   301 (86) 57 (81.43)  
 Yes 81 (13.71) 66 (14.25) 15 (11.72)   17 (15.04) 3 (5.17)   49 (14) 12 (17.14)  
Healthcare access & utilization
Health insurance     < 0.01    < 0.01    < 0.01
 No 385 (12.07) 253 (10.16) 132 (18.86)   124 (14.99) 84 (24.71)   129 (7.75) 48 (13.33)  
 Yes 2806 (87.93) 2238 (89.84) 568 (81.14)   703 (85.01) 256 (75.29)   1535 (92.25) 312 (86.67)  
Insurance type f
 Medicare 1128 (35.35) 953 (38.26) 175 (25) < 0.01 64 (7.74) 9 (2.65) < 0.01 889 (53.43) 166 (46.11) 0.01
 Medicaid 479 (15.01) 393 (15.78) 86 (12.29) 0.03 62 (7.5) 17 (5) 0.16 331 (19.89) 69 (19.17) 0.81
 Private 2052 (64.31) 1616 (64.87) 436 (62.29) 0.22 622 (75.21) 241 (70.88) 0.14 994 (59.74) 195 (54.17) 0.06
Usual source of care     < 0.01    < 0.01    < 0.01
 No 200 (6.27) 93 (3.73) 107 (15.29)   41 (4.96) 66 (19.41)   52 (3.12) 41 (11.39)  
 Yes 2980 (93.39) 2388 (95.87) 592 (84.57)   783 (94.68) 274 (80.59)   1605 (96.45) 318 (88.33)  
Obtaining care     < 0.01    < 0.01    0.02
 Less difficult 2794 (87.56) 2223 (89.24) 571 (81.57)   723 (87.42) 263 (77.35)   1500 (90.14) 308 (85.56)  
 More difficult 383 (12) 262 (10.52) 121 (17.29)   102 (12.33) 72 (21.18)   160 (9.62) 49 (13.61)  
Satisfaction with care     < 0.01    < 0.01    < 0.01
 Less satisfied 154 (4.83) 88 (3.53) 66 (9.43)   40 (4.84) 38 (11.18)   48 (2.88) 28 (7.78)  
 More satisfied 2992 (93.76) 2393 (96.07) 599 (85.57)   784 (94.8) 278 (81.76)   1609 (96.69) 321 (89.17)  
  1. RMC routine medical care, BMI body mass index, CVD cardiovascular disease, CKD chronic kidney disease
  2. aBased on family size, US Census poverty levels, and year of baseline clinic visit (2000–2004). Among participants with b hypertension, c diabetes, d,e CKD (< 100% due to n = 3 who could not be staged and n = 2 missing self-report data); fhealth insurance categories are not mutually exclusive