Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient profile and subgroup comparisons (mortality versus survivors); AND (RRT versus no RRT)

From: Electronic health records accurately predict renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury

Variables Entire Cohort Hospital Mortality RRT
Survivors Mortality p-value No RRT Received RRT p-value
n = 3333 n = 2941 n = 392   n = 3159 n = 174  
Demographics
 Age, mean (SD), yrs 65 (16) 65 (16) 70 (15) < 0.0001 65 (16) 64 (15) 0.25
 Male gender, No. (%) 1815 (54) 1607 (55) 208 (53) 0.56 1701 (54) 114 (66) 0.003
Comorbidities, No. (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 1206 (36) 1088 (37) 118 (30) 0.008 1131 (36) 75 (43) 0.05
 Hypertension 1532 (46) 1370 (47) 162 (41) 0.05 1445 (46) 87 (50) 0.27
 Ischemic heart disease 486 (15) 418 (14) 68 (17) 0.10 430 (14) 56 (32) < 0.001
 Heart failure 547 (16) 484 (16) 63 (16) 0.85 513 (16) 34 (20) 0.25
 Peripheral vascular disease 123 (4) 114 (4) 9 (2) 0.12 114 (4) 9 (5) 0.29
 Cerebrovascular disease 415 (12) 350 (12) 65 (17) 0.008 398 (13) 17 (10) 0.27
 Liver cirrhosis 153 (5) 125 (4) 28 (7) 0.01 143 (5) 10 (6) 0.45
 Solid organ malignancy 509 (15) 402 (14) 107 (27) < 0.001 497 (16) 12 (7) 0.002
 Haematological malignancy 167 (5) 149 (5) 18 (5) 0.69 154 (5) 13 (7) 0.13
 Baseline eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 787 (24) 700 (24) 87 (22) 0.48 727 (23) 60 (34) 0.001
AKI-related variables
 Relative criterion (vs absolute), No. (%) 3213 (96) 2835 (96) 378 (96) 0.97 3041 (96) 172 (99) 0.09
 AKI onset days from admission, median (IQR) 1.3 (0.5–4.6) 1.2 (0.5–4.2) 1.5 (0.6–6.4) 0.003 1.3 (0.5–4.6) 1.1 (0.4–3.5) 0.29
 Hospital-associated AKI (vs community-acquired), No. (%) 1293 (39) 1119 (38) 174 (44) 0.02 1233 (39) 60 (34) 0.23
Serum biochemistry at AKI detection, median (IQR)
 Sodium, mmol/L 136 (133–139) 136 (134–139) 136 (132–141) 0.28 136 (133–139) 136 (133–140) 0.82
 Potassium, mmol/L 4.1 (3.7–4.5) 4.1 (3.7–4.5) 4.2 (3.8–4.7) 0.0003 4.1 (3.7–4.5) 4.4 (4.0–5.0) < 0.0001
 Urea, mmol/L 9.2 (6.1–14.3) 8.9 (5.9–13.6) 13.0 (8.4–19.2) < 0.0001 9.1 (6.0–14.0) 13.1 (8.7–18.4) < 0.0001
 Creatinine, μmol/L 122 (85–184) 121 (84–182) 131 (95–206) 0.001 119 (84–178) 201 (144–319) < 0.0001
Delta serum creatinine, median (IQR), μmol/L 0 (0–11) 0 (0–7) 10 (0–77) < 0.0001 0 (0–8) 116 (21–225) < 0.0001
RRT, No. (%) 174 (5) 98 (3) 76 (19) < 0.001  
Admission details, No. (%)  
 Medical (vs surgical) specialties 2314 (69) 1991 (68) 323 (82) < 0.001 2201 (70) 113 (65) 0.19
 AKI detected in ICU 418 (13) 298 (10) 120 (31) < 0.001 333 (11) 85 (49) < 0.001
Acute disease categories, No (%)  
 Pneumonia 329 (10) 241 (8) 88 (22) < 0.001 296 (9) 33 (19) < 0.001
 Urinary tract infection 185 (6) 166 (6) 19 (5) 0.52 182 (6) 3 (2) 0.02
 Intraabdominal infection 124 (4) 110 (4) 14 (4) 0.87 117 (4) 7 (4) 0.83
 Musculoskeletal infection 159 (5) 154 (5) 5 (1) 0.001 153 (5) 6 (3) 0.40
 Acute cardiac diseases 596 (18) 509 (17) 87 (22) 0.02 544 (17) 52 (30) < 0.001
 Hepatic decompensation 98 (3) 73 (2) 25 (6) < 0.001 89 (3) 9 (5) 0.07
 Acute ischemic stroke 109 (3) 87 (3) 22 (6) 0.006 104 (3) 5 (3) 0.76
 Intracranial haemorrhage (non-traumatic) 99 (3) 93 (3) 6 (2) 0.07 99 (3) 0 (0) 0.02
Other secondary outcomes
 Total patients who received ICU care, No. (%) 1290 (39) 1066 (36) 224 (57) < 0.001 1134 (36) 156 (90) < 0.001
 Hospitalization days from AKI onset, median (IQR) 7.6 (4.0–15.8) 7.6 (4.1–15.9) 7.8 (3.0–15.3) 0.07 7.3 (3.9–15.0) 16.3 (8.7–35.3) < 0.0001
  1. AKI Acute kidney injury; eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI Equation; ICU Intensive care unit; IQR Interquartile range; RRT Renal replacement therapy; SD Standard deviation