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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study participants without diabetes at baseline overall and by quartile of HOMA-IR

From: Insulin resistance and chronic kidney disease progression, cardiovascular events, and death: findings from the chronic renal insufficiency cohort study

  Quartile of HOMA-IR, mmol/L * μU/mL  
  Overall Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4a Quartile 4b P-value
(0.04–2.04) (2.05–3.02) (3.03–4.55) (4.56–6.20) (6.21–41.1)
N = 1883 N = 471 N = 471 N = 471 N = 235 N = 235
Demographic/Clinical variables
 Age, years 56.5 (11.9) 54.2 (12.9) 56.9 (11.6) 57.7 (11.4) 57.2 (11.6) 57.2 (10.7) < 0.001
 Male gender, % 1011 (54.0) 232 (49.3) 241 (51.2) 273 (58.0) 136 (57.9) 129 (54.9) 0.04
 Race/ethnicity, %   0.03
 Non-Hispanic white 939 (50.0) 258 (54.8) 231 (49.0) 244 (51.8) 104 (44.3) 102 (43.4)  
 Non-Hispanic black 724 (38.0) 155 (32.9) 174 (36.9) 181 (38.4) 103 (43.8) 111 (47.2)
 Hispanic 144 (8.0) 38 (8.1) 42 (8.9) 31 (6.6) 17 (7.2) 16 (6.8)
 Hypertension, % 1503 (80.0) 321 (68.2) 370 (78.6) 397 (84.3) 205 (87.2) 210 (89.4) < 0.001
 Current smoking, % 258 (14.0) 82 (17.4) 65 (13.8) 45 (9.6) 36 (15.3) 30 (12.8) 0.01
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 124 (20) 122 (21) 124 (21) 125 (20) 123 (19) 124 (18) 0.16
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 73 (13) 73 (13) 73 (13) 73 (12) 73 (13) 73 (13) 0.93
 Heart rate, beats/min 67 (11) 65 (11) 66 (11) 67 (11) 67 (10) 69 (11) < 0.001
 History of cardiovascular disease, % 452 (24) 81 (17) 110 (23) 126 (27) 64 (27) 71 (30) < 0.001
 Education, %   
 Less than high school 268 (14) 57 (12.1) 72 (15.3) 74 (15.7) 28 (11.9) 37 (15.7) < 0.001
 High school graduate 343 (18) 69 (14.7) 86 (18.3) 84 (18.5) 52 (22.1) 49 (20.9)
 Some college 541 (29) 115 (24.5) 138 (29.3) 126 (26.8) 73 (31.1) 89 (37.9)
 College graduate or higher 730 (39) 229 (48.7) 175 (37.2) 184 (39.1) 82 (34.9) 60 (25.5)
Anthropometric Variables
 Height, m 1.7 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) 0.006
 Weight, kg 87 (21.7) 74.9 (16.5) 81.7 (17.4) 91.8 (20.3) 96.9 (21.2) 102.1 (25) < 0.001
 Body mass index, kg/m2 30.3 (7.1) 26.4 (4.9) 28.8 (6.0) 31.7 (6.2) 33.4 (6.8) 35.8 (8.7) < 0.001
 Waist circumference, cm 101.6 (16.3) 91.8 (13.8) 97.6 (13.0) 105.1 (13.7) 109.9 (15.2) 114.3 (17.6) < 0.001
 Fat-free mass, kg 57.4 (14.5) 52.2 (12.6) 54.8 (12.8) 60.2 (15.2) 61.7 (14.5) 63.0 (15.2) < 0.001
Medication Use
 Statins, % 778 (42) 132 (28.1) 201 (43.3) 223 (47.8) 108 (46) 114 (48.5) < 0.001
 Other lipid-lowering medication, % 855 (46) 146 (31.1) 219 (47.2) 244 (52.2) 121 (51.5) 125 (53.2) < 0.001
 ACEi or ARB use, % 1092 (58%) 219 (46.7) 273 (58.8) 287 (61.5) 163 (69.4) 150 (63.8)  
Laboratory Values
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5 (0.6) 4.7 (0.6) 4.9 (0.5) 5.2 (0.6) 5.4 (0.6) 5.7 (0.6) < 0.001
 Insulin, μg/L 0.6 (0.4–0.9) 0.4 (0.3–0.4) 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.8 (0.7–0.8) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.6 (1.3–2.0) < 0.001
 C-peptide, μg /L 3.0 (2.1–4.1) 1.8 (1.4–2.3) 2.5 (2.0–3.1) 3.4 (2.9–4.1) 4.1 (3.5–4.0) 5.8 (5.7–7.3) < 0.001
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 49 (18) 51 (20) 49 (18) 48 (16) 48 (18) 46 (15) 0.010
 24-h urine protein, g/day  
  < 0.10 838 (46) 227 (50) 203 (45.1) 201 (43.7) 99 (44.6) 108 (48.4) < 0.05
  0.10–0.49 543 (30) 131 (29) 147 (32.7) 153 (33.3) 59 (26.6) 53 (23.8)
 0.50–1.49 242 (13) 55 (12) 66 (14.7) 54 (11.7) 31 (14) 36 (16.1)
  ≥1.50 188 (10) 43 (9) 34 (7.6) 52 (11.3) 33 (14.9) 26 (11.7)
 Serum albumin, g/L 41 (4) 40 (5) 41 (4) 41 (4) 40 (4) 41 (4) 0.001
 Hemoglobin, mmol/L 8.2 (1.1) 8.0 (1.1) 8.1 (1.1) 8.2 (1.1) 8.2 (1.1) 8.3 (1.1) 0.004
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.9 (1.1) 5.0 (1.1) 4.9 (1.1) 4.8 (1.0) 4.9 (1.0) 4.9 (1.2) < 0.05
 LDL, mmol/L 2.8 (0.9) 2.9 (0.9) 2.8 (0.9) 2.8 (0.8) 2.8 (0.8) 2.7 (0.9) 0.02
 HDL, mmol/L 1.3 (0.4) 1.4 (0.5) 1.4 (0.4) 1.2 (0.4) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) < 0.001
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.4 (1.0–1.9) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.3 (0.9–1.7) 1.4 (1.1–2.0) 1.6 (1.2–2.4) 1.7 (1.2–2.8) < 0.001
 Hemoglobin A1c, mmol/mol 39 37 38 39 41 41 < 0.001
 Uric acid, umol/L 428.3 (113.0) 398.5 (113.0) 416.4 (113.0) 434.2 (107.1) 458 (107.1) 475.8 (107.1)  
 High-sensitivity CRP, nmol/L 22.9 (9.5–58.1) 14.3 (7.6–34.3) 21.0 (7.6–53.3) 26.7 (11.4–62.9) 32.4 (14.3–75.2) 39.0 (14.3–81.0) < 0.001
 FGF-23, relative units (RU)/mL 121.8 (84.0–199.2) 111.9 (76.2–189.9) 117.0 (80.6–181.2) 128.3 (87.3–206.6) 130.4 (91.3–222.0) 136.0 (91.0–234.4) < 0.001
  1. Values in the table are expressed as mean (SD), median (25th–75th percentile), or N (%)
  2. HOMA-IR – homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; ACEi- angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB – angiotensin receptor blocker, eGFR – estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL – low density lipoprotein, HDL – high density lipoprotein, CRP – C-reactive protein, FGF-23 – fibroblast growth factor 23