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Table 5 Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of renal and atherosclerotic cardiovascular composite endpoints and all-cause mortality per 1 SD increase in HOMA-IR and other markers of carbohydrate metabolism among CRIC participants without diabetes at baseline

From: Insulin resistance and chronic kidney disease progression, cardiovascular events, and death: findings from the chronic renal insufficiency cohort study

  Model 1b   Model 2b   Model 3b
HRa 95% CI HRa 95% CI HR* 95% CI
Event: Composite Renal Endpoint (ESRD/Halving of eGFR)
 HOMA-IR 0.97 0.89–1.07   1.01 0.90–1.12   1.01 0.90–1.14
 Glucose 0.93 0.85–1.03 0.94 0.85–1.04 0.88 0.79–0.98
 HbA1c 0.98 0.89–1.07 1.00 0.90–1.10 0.94 0.85–1.04
 C-peptide 1.32 1.20–1.44 1.16 1.03–1.31 1.02 0.90–1.17
Event: Composite Atherosclerotic CVD Endpoint (MI/PAD/stroke)
 HOMA-IR 1.04 0.91–1.19   1.04 0.89–1.22   1.00 0.85–1.19
 Glucose 1.04 0.91–1.20 1.06 0.91–1.23 1.05 0.90–1.23
 HbA1c 1.22 1.07–1.39 1.22 1.06–1.40 1.16 1.00–1.34
 C-peptide 1.17 1.02–1.34 1.07 0.89–1.29 1.02 0.84–1.24
Event: All-Cause Mortality
 HOMA-IR 0.94 0.85–1.05   1.01 0.89–1.14   0.98 0.86–1.12
 Glucose 0.96 0.87–1.07 0.99 0.89–1.11 0.99 0.88–1.11
 HbA1c 1.03 0.93–1.14 1.05 0.94–1.17 0.99 0.88–1.10
 C-peptide 1.18 1.06–1.31 1.16 1.01–1.33 1.09 0.94–1.27
  1. Abbreviations: CI – confidence interval, CVD – cardiovascular disease, eGFR – estimated glomerular filtration rate, ESRD – end-stage renal disease, HbA1c – glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR – homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance, HR – hazard ratio, MI – myocardial infarction, PAD – peripheral arterial disease
  2. aPer 1 standard deviation increase
  3. Model 1 includes adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, level of education, and clinical center
  4. Model 2 includes adjustment for variables in Model 1 plus body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, systolic BP, ACEi/ARB use, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, high sensitivity CRP, fat-free mass, eGFR, hemoglobin, physical activity
  5. Model 3 includes adjustment for variables in Model 2 plus use of statins, use of other lipid-lowering medications, history of CVD, 24-h urine protein, FGF-23, uric acid, serum albumin
  6. bSample sizes: Model 1 (N = 1882), Model 2 (N = 1806), Model 3 (N = 1706)