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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, laboratory values and mortality in total serum IS and according to the 2 a priori-selected groups of serum IS levels in 262 patients at the time of AKI diagnosis

From: Serum indoxyl sulfate is associated with mortality in hospital-acquired acute kidney injury: a prospective cohort study

  Total
n = 262
IS < 2.74 μg/ml
n = 131
IS ≥ 2.74 μg/ml
n = 131
P
In-hospital mortality, n % 73 (27.9) 26 (19.8) 47 (35.9) 0.004
90d mortality, n % 94 (35.9) 38 (29.0) 56 (42.7) 0.019
Demographic
 Age, yr 62.6 ± 16.6 64.04 ± 15.29 61.11 ± 17.78 0.154
 Male, n % 195 (74.4) 96 (73.3) 99 (75.6) 0.389
 MAP, mmHg 85.3 (73.3, 96.7) 86.7 (74.8, 98.5) 84.2 (68.5, 94.5) 0.073
Comorbid conditions, n %
 Hypertension 102 (38.9) 51 (38.9) 51 (38.9) 0.550
 Coronary heart disease 42 (16.0) 24 (18.3) 18 (13.7) 0.312
 Diabetes mellitus 46 (17.5) 29 (22.1) 17 (13.0) 0.037
 Chronic hepatic disease 13 (5.0) 8 (6.1) 5 (3.8) 0.286
 Chronic kidney disease 20 (7) 7 (5.3) 13 (9.9) 0.122
 Surgery 187 (71.4) 81 (61.8) 106 (80.9) < 0.001
 Sepsis 76 (29.0) 33 (25.2) 43 (32.8) 0.110
AKI stage at diagnosis, n %
 1 119 (45.5) 64 (48.9) 55 (42.0) 0.264
 2 63 (24.0) 29 (22.1) 34 (26.0) 0.470
 3 80 (30.5) 38 (29.0) 42 (32.0) 0.591
 RRT, n % 40 (15.3) 13 (9.9) 27 (20.6) 0.016
 Mechanical ventilation, n % 96 (36.6) 42 (32.1) 54 (41.2) 0.079
 APACHE II score 18.4 ± 8.7 17.5 ± 8.6 19.4 ± 8.9 0.117
Biochemical measurements
Serum
 Creatinine, μmol/L 167 (137,226) 153 (132,195) 177 (146,265) 0.001
 Urea nitrogen, mmol/L 15 (11.1,21.9) 13.9 (9.5,20.6) 17.1 (12.5,25.1) 0.001
 β2-microglobulin, mg/L 5.1 (3.6,8.2) 4.3 (2.9, 6.6) 6.3 (4.2, 8.6) 0.001
 Albumin, g/L 32.7 ± 7.1 32.8 ± 7.3 29.2 ± 7.6 0.095
 Cholesterol, mmol/L 6.3 (4.1, 10.1) 7.5 (4.6,11.4) 5.1 (3.9, 8.8) 0.063
 ALT, IU/L 31.5 (19.0,62.8) 27.0 (19.0, 57.8) 35.0 (19.3, 70.8) 0.186
 hsCRP, mg/L 95.3 ± 76.3 85.6 ± 81.5 107.4 ± 68.0 0.095
Blood
 WBC counts, × 109 cell/L 13.4 ± 6.8 13.1 ± 8.0 13.8 ± 5.4 0.389
 Neutrophilic granulocyte, % 79.4 (16.2,86.9) 79.9 (17.4,85.8) 77.9 (14.8,88.1) 0.588
 RBC counts, × 1012 cell/L 3.6 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 0.9 0.045
 Hemoglobin, g/L 108.3 ± 24.0 104.6 ± 21.5 112.0 ± 25.9 0.013
 Platelet counts, ×1012/L 150.4 ± 92.1 160.1 ± 100.0 140.5 ± 82.4 0.085
  1. IS indoxyl sulfate, AKI, acute kidney injury, MAP mean arterial pressure, RRT renal replacement therapy, ALT alanine aminotransferase, hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, WBC white blood cell, RBC red blood cell