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Table 1 Patient demographics and baseline characteristics

From: Epidemiology and health outcomes associated with hyperkalemia in a primary care setting in England

  Overall (N = 195,178) Serum K+ level during index HK event, mmol/L
5.0 to ≤ 5.5
(n = 177,945)a
> 5.5 to ≤ 6.0
(n = 14,020)
> 6.0
(n = 3213)b
Age, years 60.6 ± 16.6 60.5 ± 16.5 60.7 ± 17.0 63.7 ± 18.7
Female 101,700 (52.1) 92,847 (52.2) 7174 (51.2) 1679 (52.3)
BMI, kg/m2 28.3 ± 6.1 28.4 ± 6.1 27.9 ± 6.1 27.8 ± 6.7
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 80.5 ± 21.1 80.6 ± 20.9 79.7 ± 22.0 78.2 ± 23.9
Smoking status
 Never 100,511 (51.5) 91,977 (51.7) 6933 (49.5) 1606 (50.0)
 Current 36,852 (18.9) 33,212 (18.7) 2962 (21.1) 679 (21.1)
 Former 57,042 (29.2) 52,089 (29.3) 4059 (28.9) 888 (27.6)
 Unknown 773 (0.4) 667 (0.4) 66 (0.5) 40 (1.2)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 98,860 (50.7) 90,156 (50.7) 6839 (48.8) 1865 (58.1)
 Hyperlipidemia 38,245 (19.6) 35,009 (19.7) 2525 (18.0) 711 (22.1)
 Ischemic heart disease 24,886 (12.8) 22,486 (12.6) 1735 (12.4) 665 (20.7)
 Myocardial infarction 10,064 (5.2) 9061 (5.1) 703 (5.0) 300 (9.3)
 Arrhythmia (including atrial fibrillation) 18,475 (9.5) 16,513 (9.3) 1364 (9.7) 598 (18.6)
 Atrial fibrillation 13,182 (6.8) 11,653 (6.6) 1033 (7.4) 496 (15.4)
 Heart failure 4354 (2.2) 3716 (2.1) 349 (2.5) 289 (9.0)
 Cerebrovascular disease 12,620 (6.5) 11,241 (6.3) 964 (6.9) 415 (12.9)
 Peripheral artery disease 3531 (1.8) 3154 (1.8) 265 (1.9) 112 (3.5)
 Diabetes (types 1 and 2) 24,323 (12.5) 22,203 (12.5) 1649 (11.8) 471 (14.7)
 Chronic kidney disease 34,912 (17.9) 31,560 (17.7) 2457 (17.5) 895 (27.9)
 Obstructive lung disease 35,734 (18.3) 32,405 (18.2) 2607 (18.6) 722 (22.5)
 Liver disease 7483 (3.8) 6600 (3.7) 586 (4.2) 297 (9.2)
RAAS inhibitor use
 Never 126,475 (64.8) 115,215 (64.8) 9405 (67.1) 1855 (57.7)
 Current 59,465 (30.5) 54,532 (30.7) 4004 (28.6) 929 (28.9)
 Former 9238 (4.7) 8198 (4.6) 611 (4.4) 429 (13.4)
Concomitant medication
 ACE inhibitor 44,000 (22.5) 40,367 (22.7) 2989 (21.3) 644 (20.0)
 ARB 15,495 (7.9) 14,253 (8.0) 991 (7.1) 251 (7.8)
 MRA 3909 (2.0) 3336 (1.9) 395 (2.8) 178 (5.5)
 Loop diuretic 11,493 (5.9) 10,126 (5.7) 962 (6.9) 405 (12.6)
 Thiazide diuretic 14,204 (7.3) 13,008 (7.3) 927 (6.6) 269 (8.4)
 NSAID 18,049 (9.3) 16,492 (9.3) 1309 (9.3) 248 (7.7)
 Antibiotic 3068 (1.6) 2652 (1.5) 309 (2.2) 107 (3.3)
  1. Data are given as mean ± standard deviation or n (%)
  2. aOr Clinical Practice Research Datalink diagnosis code in the absence of laboratory results
  3. bOr Hospital Episode Statistics diagnosis code, regardless of serum K+ level
  4. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HK hyperkalemia, K+ potassium, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, RAAS renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system