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Table 5 Incidence rates per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval) of clinical outcomes following index hyperkalemic event

From: Epidemiology and health outcomes associated with hyperkalemia in a primary care setting in England

  Overall Serum K+ level during index HK event, mmol/L Comorbidity
5.0 to ≤ 5.5a > 5.5 to ≤ 6.0 > 6.0b Diabetes CKD HF Hypertension
HK recurrence 8.07 (7.98–8.16) 7.82 (7.73–7.91) 10.68 (10.28–11.08) 12.14 (11.14–13.21) 17.17 (16.76–17.59) 15.33 (15.02–15.65) 20.98 (19.83–22.18) 11.12 (10.97–11.27)
HF 0.61 (0.59–0.64) 0.60 (0.58–0.63) 0.64 (0.55–0.74) 1.38 (1.07–1.75) 1.18 (1.08–1.28) 1.57 (1.48–1.66) 0.94 (0.90–0.98)
Cardiac arrhythmia 1.07 (1.03–1.10) 1.05 (1.02–1.09) 1.13 (1.01–1.26) 1.83 (1.46–2.27) 1.58 (1.46–1.70) 2.47 (2.35–2.60) 5.06 (4.33–5.88) 1.57 (1.52–1.63)
Cardiac arrest 0.14 (0.13–0.15) 0.13 (0.12–0.15) 0.17 (0.12–0.22) 0.44 (0.28–0.66) 0.28 (0.23–0.33) 0.31 (0.27–0.35) 0.80 (0.61–1.03) 0.20 (0.18–0.22)
Decline in kidney function 6.68 (6.60–6.76) 6.54 (6.45–6.62) 7.36 (7.04–7.69) 14.61 (13.46–15.83) 12.09 (11.75–12.43) 9.69 (9.45–9.93) 16.57 (15.56–17.64) 8.75 (8.62–8.89)
Acute kidney injury 1.26 (1.23–1.30) 1.18 (1.15–1.22) 1.87 (1.71–2.03) 4.09 (3.52–4.72) 2.71 (2.56–2.87) 4.00 (3.85–4.16) 7.15 (6.49–7.85) 1.94 (1.88–2.00)
Dialysis 0.14 (0.13–0.15) 0.12 (0.11–0.13) 0.21 (0.16–0.27) 1.55 (1.23–1.94) 0.31 (0.27–0.37) 0.41 (0.36–0.46) 0.57 (0.41–0.77) 0.20 (0.19–0.22)
All-cause mortality 2.73 (2.68–2.78) 2.51 (2.46–2.56) 3.83 (3.61–4.05) 12.57 (11.63–13.56) 4.31 (4.13–4.50) 7.09 (6.90–7.29) 14.76 (13.91–15.65) 3.85 (3.76–3.93)
All-cause hospitalization 14.14 (14.01–14.27) 13.86 (13.73–13.99) 15.53 (15.03–16.03) 28.93 (27.22–30.72) 17.6 (17.18–18.03) 22.37 (21.98–22.77) 43.17 (41.33–45.07) 16.24 (16.05–16.43)
  1. aOr Clinical Practice Research Datalink diagnosis code in the absence of laboratory results
  2. bOr Hospital Episode Statistics diagnosis code, regardless of serum K+ level
  3. CKD chronic kidney disease, HF heart failure, HK hyperkalemia, K+ potassium