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Table 1 Baseline socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of studyparticipants

From: Prevalence and factors associated with renal dysfunction in children admitted to two hospitals in northwestern Tanzania

Factor Median/IQR, n (%) N = 513 With RD N = 83 Without RD N = 430 Univariate OR [95% CI] p-value Multivariate OR [95% CI] p-value
Female gender 216 (42.1) 41 (49.4) 175 (40.7) 1.42 [0.89–2.28] 0.14   
Age in months 42 [28–72] 34 [27–60] 46.5 [29–72] 0.99 [0.99–1.00] 0.10   
Study site
 Bugando Medical Centre 369 (71.9) 65 (78.3) 304 (70.7) RG0.67 RG   
 Sekou Toure Hospital 144 (28.1) 18 (21.7) 126 (29.3) [0.38–1.17] 0.16   
Water source
 Tap water 350 (68.2) 58 (69.9) 292 (67.9) 0.91 [0.55–1.52] 0.72   
 Lake or pond water 163 (31.8) 25 (30.1) 138 (32.1)     
Toilet
 Modern flush toilet 250 (48.7) 35 (42.2) 215 (50.0) 1.37 [0.85–2.21] 0.19   
 Pit latrine 263 (51.3) 48 (57.8) 215 (50.0)     
Medical history
 Herbal medications use 187 (36.5) 45 (54.2) 142 (33.0) 2.40 [1.50–3.87] < 0.001 2.11 [1.23–3.61] 0.007
 Gentamycin use 47 (9.2) 7 (8.4) 40 (9.3) 0.90 [0.34–2.08] 0.80   
 Ceftriaxone use 51 (9.9) 8 (9.6) 43 (10.0) 0.96 [0.43–2.12] 0.92   
 NSAID use 81 (15.8) 10 (12.1) 71 (16.5) 0.69 [0.34–1.41] 0.31   
 Throat/skin infection 36 (7.0) 11 (13.3) 25 (5.8) 2.48 [1.17–5.25] 0.018 2.74 [1.14–6.56] 0.024
 History of SCD 71 (13.8) 21 (25.3) 50 (11.6) 2.5 [1.44–4.58] 0.001 2.59 [1.31–5.10] 0.006
 Family history of SCD 40 (7.8) 6 (7.2) 34 (7.9) 0.91 [0.37–2.24] 0.83   
 Prior surgeries 28 (5.5) 1 (1.2) 27 (6.3) 0.18 [0.02–1.36] 0.10   
Presenting symptoms
 Hematuria 28 (5.5) 4 (4.8) 24 (5.6) 0.86 [0.29–2.54] 0.78   
 Fever 373 (72.7) 59 (71.1) 314 (73.0) 0.91 [0.54–1.53] 0.72   
 Dysuria 63 (12.3) 12 (14.5) 51 (11.9) 1.26 [0.64–2.48] 0.51   
 Rash 28 (5.5) 6 (7.2) 22 (5.1) 1.45 [0.57–3.68] 0.44   
 Diarrhea 112 (21.8) 23 (27.7) 89 (20.7) 1.47 [0.86–2.51] 0.16   
 Bloody diarrhea 24 (4.7) 7 (8.4) 17 (4.0) 2.24 [0.90–5.58] 0.08   
 Vomiting 176 (34.3) 27 (32.5) 149 (34.7) 0.91 [0.55–1.50] 0.71   
 Recurrent UTI 45 (8.8) 5 (6.0) 40 (9.3) 0.63 [0.24–1.63] 0.34   
 Urine output
  Normal 458 (89.3) 66 (79.5) 392 (91.2) RG RG   
  Increased 15 (2.9) 2 (2.4) 13 (3.0) 0.91 [0.20–4.14] 0.91   
  Decreased 40 (7.8) 15 (18.1) 25 (5.8) 3.56 [1.79–7.11] < 0.001 1.11 [0.60–2.06] 0.73
Presenting signs
 Pallor 212 (41.3) 32 (38.6) 180 (41.9) 0.87 [0.54–1.41] 0.58   0.001 0.62
 Dehydration 65 (12.7) 21 (25.3) 44 (10.2) 2.97 [1.66–5.33] < 0.001 3.12 [1.56–6.26]  
 Edema 59 (11.5) 15 (18.1) 44 (10.2) 1.94 [1.02–3.67] 0.04 1.21 [0.56–2.62]  
Vital signs
 Pediatric GCS 15 [15–15] 15 [15–15] 15 [15–15] 0.83 [0.69–0.10] 0.05   
 Saturation 97 (95–98) 97 [94–98] 97 [95–98] 0.97 [0.93–1.01] 0.09   
 Temperature 37 [36.6–38] 36.5 [36.2–36.8] 37 [36.6–38] 0.92 [0.72–1.16] 0.47   
 Respiratory rate 30 [23–40] 30 [24–40] 30 [22–38] 1.01 [0.10–1.03] 0.08   
 Pulse rate 112 [98–128] 110 [98–128] 112 [98–130] 0.10 [0.99–1.01] 0.38   
 Blood pressure
  SBP 90 [85–100] 90 [85–102] 90 [85–100] 1.01 [0.99–1.03] 0.27   
  DBP 60 [58–67] 60 [60–70] 60 [58–66] 1.01 [0.99–1.04] 0.29   
HIV positivity 30 (5.8) 5 (6.0) 25 (5.8) 1.04 [0.38–2.79] 0.94   
Positive BS for MPS 59 (11.5) 16 (19.3) 43 (10.0) 2.15 [1.14–4.03] 0.017 2.67 [1.26–5.66] 0.01
Urine protein
 Negative 417 (81.3) 46 (55.4) 371 (86.3) RG RG   
 Positive 96 (18.7) 37 (44.6) 59 (13.7) 5.06 [3.03–8.45] < 0.001 5.28 [2.97–9.39] < 0.001
Urine RBC
 Negative 493 (96.1) 77 (92.8) 416 (96.7) RG RG   
 Positive 20 (3.9) 6 (7.2) 14 (3.3) 2.32 [0.86–6.21] 0.10   
Urine CCA
 Negative 344 (67.1) 47 (56.6) 297 (69.1) RG RG   
 Positive 169 (32.9) 36 (43.4) 133 (30.9) 1.71 [1.05–2.76] 0.028 1.19 [0.36–3.95] 0.77
Urine CCA
 Negative 344 (67.1) 47 (56.6) 297 (69.1) RG RG   
 Line faintly visible 83 (16.2) 19 (22.9) 64 (14.9) 1.88 [1.03–3.41] 0.039 1.31 [0.36–4.80] 0.68
 Line lighter than control 64 (12.5) 13 (15.7) 51 (11.9) 1.61 [0.81–3.41] 0.17   
 Intensity equal to control 22 (4.2) 4 (4.8) 18 (4.2) 1.40 [0.46–4.33] 0.56   
Nutritional status
 Normal 268 (52.2) 47 (56.6) 221 (51.4) RG RG   
 Mild malnutrition 95 (18.5) 12 (14.5) 83 (19.3) 0.68 [0.34–1.34] 0.23   
 Moderate malnutrition 76 (14.8) 12 (14.5) 64 (14.9) 0.88 [0.44–1.76] 0.72   
 Severe malnutrition 74 (14.5) 12 (14.5) 62 (14.4) 0.91 [0.45–1.82] 0.79   
  1. CI Confidence interval, RG Reference group, BS for MPS Blood Slide for Malaria Parasites, NSAD Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, SCD Sickle Cell Disease, UTI Urinary Tract Infection, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, RR Respiratory Rate, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, CCA Circulating Cathodic Antigen