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Table 2 Association of gout and other risk factors with Incident CKD

From: Gout is associated with a higher risk of chronic renal disease in older adults: a retrospective cohort study of U.S. Medicare population

  Multivariable-adjusted (Model 1)* Multivariable-adjusted (Model 2)* Multivariable-adjusted (Model 3)*
  HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value
Age (in years)
 65 - < 75 Ref   Ref   Ref  
 75 - < 85 1.62 (1.60, 1.63) < 0.0001 1.60 (1.58, 1.62) < 0.0001 1.55 (1.53, 1.57) < 0.0001
  ≥ 85 2.26 (2.23, 2.30) < 0.0001 2.27 (2.24, 2.31) < 0.0001 2.24 (2.21, 2.27) < 0.0001
Gender
 Male Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Female 0.78 (0.77, 0.79) < 0.0001 0.78 (0.77, 0.78) < 0.0001 0.76 (0.75, 0.76) < 0.0001
Race
 White Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Black 1.38 (1.36, 1.40) < 0.0001 1.42 (1.39, 1.44) < 0.0001 1.30 (1.28, 1.32) < 0.0001
 Other 0.98 (0.96, 1.00) 0.024 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 0.46 0.96 (0.94, 0.98) < 0.0001
Charlson-Romano score, per unit change 1.22 (1.21, 1.22) < 0.0001 N/A   N/A  
Charlson-Romano score
 0 N/A   Ref   N/A  
 1    2.33 (2.30, 2.37) < 0.0001   
  ≥ 2    2.99 (2.96, 3.02) < 0.0001   
Gout 3.05 (2.99, 3.10) < 0.0001 2.96 (2.91, 3.01) < 0.0001 2.59 (2.54, 2.63) < 0.0001
  1. * Model 1 included Charlson-Romano score as a continuous variable; Model 2 replaced it with categorized Charlson-Romano score; and Model 3 replaced it with each of the 17 Charlson-Romano comorbidities. All models were also adjusted for medications for cardiovascular diseases (statins, beta-blockers, diuretics, ACE-inhibitors) and for urate-lowering therapies for gout (allopurinol, febuxostat)
  2. N/A not applicable, HR Hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref referent category
  3. Bold represents statistical significance, with a P-value < 0.05