Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 The clinical characteristics of study subjects at enrollment with respect to the presence of metabolic syndrome

From: Serum klotho is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in chronic kidney disease: results from the KNOW-CKD study

  Total (N = 1754) Subjects without MS (n = 636) Subjects with MS (n = 1118) P–value
Age (years) 54.9 ± 12.1 52.3 ± 12.8 56.3 ± 11.4 < 0.001
Sex, male, n (%) 1110 (63.3) 387 (60.8) 723 (64.7) 0.111
SBP (mmHg) 128.5 ± 17.0 124.9 ± 16.4 130.6 ± 17.0 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 76.0 ± 11.2 75.5 ± 10.9 76.5 ± 11.4 0.059
BMI (kg/m2) 24.7 ± 3.4 22.9 ± 2.9 25.8 ± 3.2 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 88.1 ± 9.8 81.4 ± 8.4 91.7 ± 8.5 < 0.001
DM, n (%) 700 (39.9) 110 (17.3) 590 (52.8) < 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 1719 (98.0) 606 (95.3) 1113 (99.6) < 0.001
Preexisting CV disease, n (%) 298 (17.0) 72 (11.3) 226 (20.2) < 0.001
 CAD, n (%) 110 (6.3) 21 (3.3) 89 (8.0) < 0.001
 PVD, n (%) 76 (4.3) 22 (3.5) 54 (4.8) 0.175
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 110 (6.3) 24 (3.8) 86 (7.7) 0.001
 HF, n (%) 28 (1.6) 9 (1.4) 19 (1.7) 0.648
 Arrhythmia, n (%) 52 (3.0) 19 (3.0) 33 (3.0) 0.966
Cause of CKD, n (%) < 0.001
 GN, n (%) 746 (42.5) 387 (60.8) 359 (32.1)  
 Diabetic nephropathy, n (%) 491 (28.0) 72 (11.3) 419 (37.5)  
 Hypertension, n (%) 389 (22.2) 142 (22.3) 247 (22.1)  
 Others, n (%) 128 (7.3) 35 (5.5) 93 (8.3)  
Laboratory findings
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 49.1 ± 28.6 53.1 ± 29.6 46.8 ± 27.9 < 0.001
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.7 ± 2.1 12.8 ± 2.0 12.7 ± 2.1 0.798
 Albumin (g/dL) 4.1 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.5 0.357
 Uric acid (mg/dL) 7.2 ± 1.9 7.1 ± 1.9 7.3 ± 1.9 0.025
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.9 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 1.2 0.002
 hsCRP, median, (IQR) (mg/dL) 0.07 (0.03, 0.17) 0.04 (0.02, 0.11) 0.08 (0.03, 0.21) 0.005
 Fasting blood sugar (mg/dL) 113.9 ± 42.7 100.4 ± 28.5 121.5 ± 47.2 < 0.001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 173.4 ± 40.4 173.5 ± 36.2 173.3 ± 42.5 0.917
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 164.1 ± 103.1 106.3 ± 52.0 196.0 ± 110.2 < 0.001
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 95.0 ± 32.7 96.5 ± 30.1 95.7 ± 34.1 0.609
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 48.2 ± 15.5 56.5 ± 15.0 43.7 ± 13.8 < 0.001
 Overt proteinuriaa, n (%) 942 (61.0) 319 (58.3) 623 (62.5) 0.108
Medication, n (%)
 ACEi or ARB, n (%) 1521 (86.9) 526 (83.0) 995 (89.1) < 0.001
 Diuretics, n (%) 443 (25.3) 99 (15.6) 344 (25.3) < 0.001
 Statin, n (%) 998 (56.9) 323 (50.8) 675 (60.4) < 0.001
 Ca-based P binders, n (%) 161 (9.2) 67 (10.5) 94 (8.4) 0.179
  1. a24-h urine protein > 500 mg/day
  2. MS metabolic syndrome, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, CV cardiovascular, CAD coronary artery disease, HF heart failure, PVD peripheral vascular disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, GN glomerulonephritis, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI creatinine equation, hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, IQR interquartile range, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, Ca calcium, P phosphorus