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Table 6 Summary of differentiating urinary metabolites in WT and meprin βKO mice at 4- and 8-weeks post STZ with a 2 ≤ FC and/or 2 ≤ VIP. A variable importance in projection (VIP) score 2 ≤ are considered to have strong predictive value. Differentiating urinary metabolites that associate with meprin expression (Change in either WT or βKO only)

From: Meprin β metalloproteases associated with differential metabolite profiles in the plasma and urine of mice with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy

  4 Weeks post STZ 8 Weeks post STZ
  VIP P-value* FC**   VIP P-value* FC**
WT Only Cortisol 10.5 0.003 54.9 Cortisol 8.2 0.002 21.6
9,13-Dihydroxy-4-megastigmen-3-one 9-glucoside 1.6 0.003 −22.9 Homovanillic acid sulfate 7.8 0.002 21
Aromadendrin 3,7-diglucoside 1.3 0.02 6.9 Aromadendrin 3,7-diglucoside 2 0.002 13.9
Hydroxybutyrylcarnitine 1 0.003 −6.2 Pyrogallol-2-O-glucuronide 1.5 0.006 −3.5
Homovanillic acid sulfate 8.3 0.02 4.1 Phloretin 2′-O-glucuronide 1.3 0.002 3.4
Taurocholic acid 0.5 0.003 4 Prenyl glucoside 2 0.002 −3.1
N-Heptanoylglycine 4.7 0.011 −3.9 Caffeic acid 3-sulfate 4.7 0.002 2.3
Cicerin 7-(6-malonylglucoside) 3.5 0.003 3.7 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid 1.7 0.003 2.3
Porric acid B 3.3 0.003 −3.7 Tyrosyl-Valine 1.4 0.006 2.3
Phloretin 2′-O-glucuronide 1.2 0.003 3.6 Dibutyl malate 1.7 0.002 2.1
Phenylacetylglycine 0.4 0.003 −3.4 Ergothioneine 0.3 0.002 2.1
20-oxo-leukotriene B4 2.1 0.003 3.3 Taurocholic acid 0.3 0.002 2
Tyrosyl-Valine 1.8 0.003 3.3 Indole-3-carboxilic acid-O-sulphate 4.9 0.002 1.9
LysoPC(16:1(9Z)) 0.5 0.003 2.9 7-Methoxy-5-prenyloxycoumarin 2.4 0.002 1.9
3b,8b-Dihydroxy-6b-angeloyloxy-7(11)-eremophilen-12,8-olide 1.8 0.003 2.7 5-Acetyl-2,4-dimethyloxazole 2.2 0.002 1.7
Indole-3-carboxilic acid-O-sulphate 1.7 0.003 2.7 3,5-Dihydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone 3-glucuronide 5.6 0.004 −3.7
Caffeic acid 4-sulfate 2.5 0.003 −2.7 3-Formyl-6-hydroxyindole 1.2 0.017 3.6
Phenylpropionylglycine 4.8 0.011 −2.4 Formononetin 7-O-glucuronide 2.3 0.004 1.7
Ergothioneine 0.3 0.003 2.1 Indoxyl glucuronide* 3.2 0.004 −1.7
Hippuric acid 1.4 0.034 −2     
βKO Only 4-Methoxyphenylacetic acid 2.3   1.4     
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol sulfate 14.2   1.3     
Riboflavin 2.5   −1.3     
  1. p-value* : p-value for Exact Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test
  2. FC**: A positive or negative fold change indicates median of STZ > median of NaC