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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital n = 202

From: Quality of life among patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease in Ghana - a single centre study

Characteristic n = 202
Age (yrs) μ SD 46.7 ± 16.2
Male Gender n (%) 118 (58.4%)
Marital status
 Married n (%) 137 (67.8)
 Single n (%) 42 (20.8)
 Divorced/separated n (%) 12 (5.9)
 Widowed n (%) 11(5.5)
Educational level
 No formal education n (%) 22 (10.9)
 Primary education n (%) 21 (10.4)
 Junior high school n (%) 56 (22.7)
 Senior high school n (%) 77 (38.1)
 Tertiary n (%) 26 (12.9)
Employment status
 Full time employment n (%) 96 (47.5)
 Part time employment n (%) 4 (2.0)
 Unemployed n (%) 83 (41.1)
 In training n (%) 4 (2.0)
 Retired n (%) 15 (7.4)
Monthly income status
 Less than GHS 500 n (%) 165 (81.7)
 GHS 500–1499 n (%) 20 (9.9)
 GHS 1500–2499 n (%) 9 (4.5)
 GHS 2500–3499 n (%) 2 (1.0)
 Greater than GHS 3500 n (%) 6 (3.0)
Cause of CKD
 Chronic glomerulonephritis n (%) 118 (58.4)
 Diabetes mellitus n (%) 40 (19.8)
 Hypertension n (%) 19 (9.4)
 Polycystic kidney disease n (%) 14 (6.9)
 HIVAN n (%) 5 (2.5)
 Obstructive uropathy n (%) 2 (1.0)
 Others n (%) 4 (2.0)
Stage of CKD
 Stage 3 n (%) 13 (6.5)
 Stage 4 n (%) 45 (22.4)
 Stage 5 n (%) 143 (71.1)
 Systolic BP mmHg μ SD 152.3 ± 30.0
 Diastolic BP mmHg μ SD 88.6 ± 19.8
 Hypertension n (%) 187 (92.6)
Laboratory characteristics
 Haemoglobin levels (g/dL)) μ SD 9.2 ± 2.5
 Anaemia (Hb < 12 g/dL) n (%) 164 (81.2)
 MCV fL μ SD 81.4 ± 7.6
 MCH pg/cell μ SD 28.0 ± 3.2
 Serum Urea mmol/L M (IQR) 19.2 (12.5–30.5)
 Serum Creatinine umol/L M (IQR)) 634.2 (333–1248)
 GFR ml/min/1.73m2 M (IQR) 7 (3–16)
Medications used
 ACEi/ARBs n (%) 141 (70.2)
 Calcium channel blockers n (%) 161 (80.1)
 Diuretics n (%) 160 (79.6)
 Beta- blockers n (%) 56 (27.9)
 Hydralazine n (%) 56 (27.9)
 Methyldopa n (%) 80 (39.8)
 ESA n (%) 19 (9.4)
 Intravenous iron n (%) 4 (2.0)
  1. Yrs years, SD standard deviation, μ mean, n. number, GHS Ghanaian cedis, USD United States dollars, MCV mean corpuscular volume, MCH mean corpuscular haemoglobin, SD standard deviation, μ mean, IQR interquartile range, M median, BP blood pressure, GFR glomerular filtration rate, fL femtolitres, pg pigogram, CKD chronic kidney disease, HIVAN human immunodeficiency virus associated nephropathy, ACEi angiotension converting enzyme inhibitor, ARBs angiotensin II receptor blocker, ESA erythropoietin stimulating agent, others chronic schistosomiasis and posttraumatic nephrectomy