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Table 3 Independent variables and their association with the overall mean quality of life among patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease n = 202

From: Quality of life among patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease in Ghana - a single centre study

Variable Mean ± SD Frequency P value
Age (yrs) ≥50 39.8 ± 15.5 93 0.687
Age (yrs) < 50 40.7 ± 15.4 109  
Female gender 38.9 ± 14.2 84 0.268
Male gender 41.3 ± 16.2 118  
Above JHS 41.1 ± 16.2 103 0.486
JHS and below 39.5 ± 14.5 99  
Employed 39.9 ± 15.9 100 0.673
Unemployed 40.8 ± 15.0 102  
Monthly income(GHS) < 500 38.5 ± 14.1 165 < 0.001
Monthly income(GHS) ≥ 500 48.4 ± 18.3 37  
Married 41.0 ± 15.6 137 0.373
Unmarried 38.9 ± 15.0 65  
Haemoglobin < 12 g/dL 38.3 ± 13.6 164 < 0.001
Haemoglobin level ≥ 12 g/dL 49.2 ± 19.3 38  
MCV < 80 fL 36.9 ± 10.7 85 0.007
MCV ≥ 80 fL 42.8 ± 17.7 117  
MCH < 27 pg/cell 39.9 ± 14.4 62 0.783
MCH ≥ 27 pg/cell 40.5 ± 15.9 140  
CKD stage 5 37.9 ± 13.6 143 < 0.001
CKD Stage 3 and 4 46.4 ± 17.9 58  
Serum urea≥20 mmol/L 36.1 ± 13.1 90 0.004
Serum urea < 20 mmol/L 44.0 ± 16.7 101  
ESA use 41.9 ± 12.9 19 0.651
Not on ESA 40.2 ± 15.7 182  
IV iron use 50.4 ± 19.6 4 0.191
No IV iron 40.2 ± 15.3 197  
  1. JHS junior high school, MCV mean corpuscular volume, MCH mean corpuscular haemoglobin, GHS Ghana Cedis, CKD chronic kidney disease, ESA erythropoietin stimulating agent, IV intravenous, SD standard deviation