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Table 3 Effect of hypertonic saline and furosemide on GFR and tubular function in a randomized, cross-over study of 24 healthy subjects

From: Effect of 3% saline and furosemide on biomarkers of kidney injury and renal tubular function and GFR in healthy subjects – a randomized controlled trial

Period Baseline Hypertonic saline infusion Post hypertonic saline infusion  
  0–90 min 90–150 min 150–180 min 180–210 min 210–240 min 240–300 min P (GLM within)
GFR (51Cr-EDTA clearance)
 Placebo 104 ± 14 102 ± 15 107 ± 15 110 ± 15* 111 ± 23* 112 ± 15* 0.001
 Furosemide 104 ± 12 103 ± 13 103 ± 18 93 ± 14* 93 ± 14* 98 ± 12
P (GLM between) 0.089  
Urine output (mL/min)
 Placebo 9.8 ± 1.5 3.5 ± 1.6* 2.7 ± 1.3* 2.7 ± 0.8* 3.3 ± 1.4* 4.7 ± 2.2* < 0.001
 Furosemide 9.1 ± 2.2 23.1 ± 2.6* 10.1 ± 3.1 4.3 ± 1.8* 2.4 ± 0.9* 2.0 ± 1.2*
P (GLM between) <  0.001  
CH2O (ml/min)
 Placebo 6.6 ± 1.3 −0.4 ± 1.4* −2.2 ± 1.2* −2.4 ± 1.0* −1.8 ± 1.6* 0.0 ± 2.1* 0.001
 Furosemide 6.1 ± 2.0 1.1 ± 1.1* −2.0 ± 0.7* −1.8 ± 0.5* −1.5 ± 0.5* −1.1 ± 0.6*
P (GLM between) 0.597  
U-Na (μmol/min)
 Placebo 200 ± 94 361 ± 146* 501 ± 234* 531 ± 182* 511 ± 161* 466 ± 106* < 0.001
 Furosemide 162 ± 78 2865 ± 342* 1515 ± 3.81* 659 ± 274* 377 ± 158* 273 ± 141*
P (GLM between) < 0.001  
FENa (%)
 Placebo 1.38 ± 0.63 2.46 ± 0.85* 3.28 ± 1.49* 3.36 ± 0.89* 3.26 ± 0.81* 3.00 ± 0.69* < 0.001
 Furosemide 1.13 ± 0.55 19.81 ± 3.11* 10.66 ± 3.81* 5.03 ± 1.97* 3.03 ± 1.59* 2.05 ± 1.31*
P (GLM between) < 0.001  
U-Cl (μmol/min)
 Placebo 239 ± 84 379 ± 146* 537 ± 261* 575 ± 201* 558 ± 185* 502 ± 122* < 0.001
 Furosemide 212 ± 61 3083 ± 356* 1679 ± 462* 763 ± 298* 441 ± 177* 310 ± 156*
P (GLM between) <  0.001  
FEK (%)
 Placebo 21.1 ± 6.2 18.1 ± 7.1* 21.6 ± 17.0 23.1 ± 10.0 22.7 ± 8.0 21.9 ± 7.8 < 0.001
 Furosemide 24.0 ± 9.2 64.9 ± 15.2* 44.6 ± 14.7* 34.6 ± 16.6* 27.4 ± 11.4 23.8 ± 10.5
P (GLM between) < 0.001  
U-osmolality (μmol//min)
 Placebo 899 ± 205 1103 ± 304* 1416 ± 592* 1485 ± 403* 1446 ± 351* 1351 ± 260* < 0.001
 Furosemide 831 ± 124 6293 ± 684* 3514 ± 881* 1746 ± 602* 1129 ± 323* 905 ± 328
P (GLM between) < 0.001  
  1. GFR Glomerular filtration rate, urine output, CH2O free water clearance, u-Na/min urinary sodium excretion, FENa fractional excretion of sodium, u-Cl/min urinary chloride excretion and FEK fractional excretion of potassium, Urine was collected every 30 min in the 90 min baseline period, once after 60 min of hypertonic infusion, and every 30 min 90 min after hypertonic saline infusion and once 150 min after cessation of hypertonic saline infusion. Data from three baseline periods are pooled and shown as one period. Data are presented as means ± SD. Statistics are performed with a general linear model (GLM) or paired t-test. Difference from baseline: * = p < 0.05