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Table 4 Effect of hypertonic saline and furosemide on excretion of proteins from epithelial sodium channels and aquaporin-2 channels in a randomized, cross-over study of 24 healthy subjects

From: Effect of 3% saline and furosemide on biomarkers of kidney injury and renal tubular function and GFR in healthy subjects – a randomized controlled trial

Period Baseline Hypertonic saline infusion Post hypertonic saline infusion  
  0–90 min 90–150 min 150–180 min 180–210 min 210–240 min 240–300 min P (GLM within)
U-AQP2 (ng/minute)
 Placebo 0.81 (0.66;0.93) 0.85 (0.71;1.05) 1.00 (0.81;1.31)* 1.01 (0.87;1.38)* 1.07 (0.77;1.26)* 0.98 (0.80;1.09)* < 0.001
 Furosemide 0.77 (0.66;0.92) 1.42 (1.18;1.61)* 1.12 (0.90;1.41)* 1.14 (0.88;1.46)* 0.86 (0.72;1.10)* 0.79 (0.72;0.93)
P (GLM between) 0.553  
U-AQP2 /creatinine (ng/mmol)
 Placebo 72 (66;84) 84 (74;87) 86 (83;104)* 102 (85;111)* 90 (77;99)* 92 (82;98)* < 0.001
 Furosemide 76 (63;83) 140 (104;150)* 100 (91;129)* 121 (84;132)* 97 (81;107)* 88 (64;104)*
P (GLM between) 0.186  
U-ENaCγ (ng/minute)
 Placebo 0.87 (0.71;1.27) 0.73 (0.60;1.19) 0.90 (0.76;1.27) 0.81 (0.70;1.10) 0.75 (0.64;1.13) 0.68 (0.60;1.03)* 0.399
 Furosemide 0.92 (0.83;1.26) 0.87 (0.75;1.03) 1.06 (0.63;1.31) 0.83 (0.64;1.12) 0.81 (0.64;1.04)* 0.73 (0.63;0.93)*
P (GLM between) 0.806  
U-ENaCγ /creatinine (ng/mmol)
 Placebo 80 (72;97) 80 (63;90) 84 (72;98) 79 (63;87) 70 (63;89) 69 (62;81)* 0.884
 Furosemide 91 (82;99) 75 (66;131) 81 (70;116) 88 (72;16) 83 (69;107)* 72 (60;97)*
P (GLM between) 0.487  
UAER (μg/min)
 Placebo 1 (0;5) 3 (3;4) 4 (4;6) 4 (3;6) 4 (3;4) 3 (0;4) 0.129
 Furosemide 1 (0;5) 0 (0;9) 0 (0;10) 4 (1;7) 4 (2;6) 3 (2;5)
P (GLM between) 0.167  
  1. u-AQP2/minute Aquaporin-2 excretion rate, U-AQP2/creatinine creatinine adjusted u-AQP2 excretion, u-ENaCγ/minute excretion of the γ-fraction of the epithelial sodium channel and U-ENaCγ /creatinine creatinine adjusted u-ENACγ, UAER urinary albumin excretion rate. Urine was collected every 30 min in the 90 min baseline period, once after 60 min of hypertonic infusion, and every 30 min 90 min after hypertonic saline infusion and once 150 min after cessation of hypertonic saline infusion. Data from three baseline periods are pooled and shown as one period. Data are shown as medians with 25 and 75 percentiles in brackets. P-value represents probability of difference in response to hypertonic saline (response from baseline to hypertonic saline) between treatments Statistics are performed with a general linear model (GLM), or Wilcoxon signed rank test. Data were logarithmic transformed before GLM was performed. Difference from baseline: * = p < 0.05